Study Two: Persuasion can be effective in determining an outcome…

Question Study Two: Persuasion can be effective in determining an outcome… Study Two: Persuasion can be effective in determining an outcome depending on the variables that are associated with it. People can make their own decisions but there are always underlying PERCEPTIONS OF TWITTER APOLOGIES 10 factors that go unnoticed. Individuals focus on information that aligns with their beliefs and perspectives, ignoring anything that proves to be contradictory (Hong & Cameron, 2018). Motivation to keep and represent these beliefs leads to the persuasion to select this specific information. Social information processing theory suggests an internal motivation that allows individuals to form impressions and make judgments about the information “channel” through using all the “cues” that are provided (Edwards et al., 2013). Online “channels” are different when making these assumptions. The impressions and judgments of online users are formed through the online source’s characteristics (e.g., popularity, credibility, and attractiveness) based on the information through examining the source’s social network (Edwards et al., 2013). Information online is up for interpretation. Individuals tend to believe the information online due to the lack of thoughts, feelings, and personal biases (Edwards et al., 2013). Lack of face to face interactions leads to the disadvantage of whether the information is correctly interpreted. Social recommendation systems are feedback mechanisms through online platforms that are representations of an audience or collective group indicating what they think about a particular topic or area of interest (Kim, 2014). Social media platforms display these social recommendations systems through icons of a thumbs-up or thumbs-down, a like or dislike, respectively. Social recommendation systems give individuals the platform to express their opinion. A study conducted by Kim (2014) concluded that online users view social recommendation systems as an expressive tool; the combination of motivation concerning expression allows online users to use social recommendation tools as an outlet to express their opinions. Social recommendation systems are also used to analyze public collective opinions. (Kim, 2014). One individual in favor of a public opinion can influence how others perceive that opinion as well. PERCEPTIONS OF TWITTER APOLOGIES 11 The bandwagon effect is a theory that states if a group of individuals supports an opinion then others will fall in line and support the opinion as well. A study was conducted by Xu (2013) to see how the bandwagon effect was dependent on social recommendation cues (number of digs) on the influence on perceived news credibility. The number of diggs served as a group’s collective opinion. It was hypothesized that a news feed with a lot of digs would be perceived as more credible compared to the one with a few diggs. The hypothesis was supported. A news feed that had a lot of diggs was deemed credible based on the bandwagon effect on the influence of the number of diggs (Xu, 2013). This conclusion can be used to infer that a high number of social recommendation cues (e.g. likes) will be viewed as more credible than a low number of likes. Hong and Cameron (2018) claim people would believe comments if they received many likes. Believing an apology with many likes increases credibilityResults: A chi-square test was used for the apology manipulation check (#SorrySorrySorry and #SorryNotSorry) as the independent variable to determine if participants remembered which hashtag they saw at the end of the post. The results indicated a significant effect c 2 (2) = 105.85, p < .001. Most participants remembered #SorrySorrySorry (67.1%) in the sincere condition and most participants remembered #SorryNotSorry (68.6%) in the insincere condition (Table 1). Participants correctly identified the hashtag with the corresponding condition. The chi-square test showed that participants paid attention to the apology manipulation at the end of the apology post Which of the following are dependent variables for study 2?(Check all that apply): 1. The results of the study2. The participants' ratings of Charlie's acknowledgment of wrongdoing3. The participant's ratings of the sincerity of Charlie's apology4. Gender5. Whether the participant believes someone should have to wear a mask6. Type of apology (type of hashtag)7. The Twitter account8. The selfieWhat is one of the main hypotheses for study two? Complete the hypothesis statement below based on the predictions made in the second study (read carefully): Subjects in the Sincere Hashtag condition will score Charlie   [ Select ]  ["lower", "the same", "higher"]  on the DVs than subjects in the   [ Select ]  ["No likes", "Sincere Hashtag", "Less likes", "More likes", "Insincere Hashtag"]  condition.What is one of the main hypotheses for study two? Complete the hypothesis statement below based on the predictions made in the second study (read carefully): Subjects in the   [ Select ]  ["No likes", "Less likes", "More likes"]  condition will score Charlie lower on the DVs than subjects in the   [ Select ]  ["Sincere Hashtag", "More likes", "Less likes", "No likes", "Insincere Hashtag"]  condition.What is one of the main hypotheses for study two? Complete the hypothesis statement below based on the predictions made in the second study (read carefully): Subjects in the   [ Select ]  ["Insincere Hashtag", "Sincere Hashtag", "No Hashtag"]  with   [ Select ]  ["Less Likes", "No Likes", "More Likes"]  condition will score highest on the DVs, while subjects in the   [ Select ]  ["Insincere Hashtag", "Sincere Hashtag", "No Hashtag"]  with   [ Select ]  ["More Likes", "Less Likes", "No Likes"]  condition will score lowest on the DVs.Subjects in the   [ Select ]  ["Sincere Hashtag", "Insincere Hashtag", "No Hashtag"]  with Less Likes and Insincere Hashtag with   [ Select ]  ["Less Likes", "No Likes", "More Likes"]  condition will score in the middle for the DVs.What were the main effect findings of study 2?(Select all that apply)1. The Sincere and Insincere Hashtag conditions were scored the same on the DVs.2. The Lots of Likes condition scored higher on the DVs than the Few Likes condition.3. The Sincere Hashtag condition scored higher on the DVs than the Insincere Hashtag condition.4. The Insincere Hashtag condition scored higher on the DVs than the Sincere Hashtag condition.5. The Few Likes condition scored higher on the DVs than the Lots of Likes condition.6. The Lots of Likes and Few Likes conditions were scored the same on the DVs.Which of the following correctly summarizes the interaction effect of study 2?(Select all that apply)1. An interaction occurred for both DVs in the study in the direction that the study predicted.2. An interaction occurred for only one of the DVs in the study.3. No interaction occurred for any of the DVs in the study.4. An interaction occurred for both DVs in the study, but in the opposite direction that the study predicted. 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