SEU Economics Traditional and New Media Essay


What are the economic motives which explain the formation of networks in television broadcasting and/ or magazine publishing? Compare and contrast the economic features of conventional media networks (e.g. in broadcasting) with those of communication and/ or online social networks and assess why, in both cases, there are strong motives for the network to expand.

1 attachmentsSlide 1 of 1attachment_1attachment_1.slider-slide > img { width: 100%; display: block; }
.slider-slide > img:focus { margin: auto; }

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Essay Assignment 2
Please submit a 3,000 word essay on one of the following topics. The length of your
essay should be maximum 3,000 words, including your bibliography. The minimum
acceptable word-length is 2,500 words, including bibliography.
Please note the attached important guidelines on proper referencing and how to
avoid plagiarism. You MUST acknowledge all sources and put all direct quotations,
however short, into quotation marks. A bibliography must be appended at the end of
your essay.
1. According to recent statistics, some 80% of UK consumer expenditure on
films is accounted for by output from the Hollywood ‘majors’. Analyse which
factors contribute to the economic success of US-based Hollywood products
as opposed to products from other countries such as the UK. Giving reasons
for your answer, please also discuss briefly how (if at all) you believe the
predominance of the majors might be affected by growth of online
consumption, the rise of SVoD services and the Coronovirus pandemic.
2. According to a recent Reuters Institute Report ‘the Coronovirus pandemic…
has hastened the demise of printed newspapers … [a]nd yet, this crisis has also
shown the value of accurate and reliable information at a time when lives are
at stake’ (Newman et al, 2021: 10). Please assess to what extent you believe
that digitization and growth of the internet represent a potential source of
opportunity or pose a threat to the development of the news publishing
3. What are the economic motives which explain the formation of networks in
television broadcasting and/ or magazine publishing? Compare and contrast
the economic features of conventional media networks (e.g. in broadcasting)
with those of communication and/ or online social networks and assess why,
in both cases, there are strong motives for the network to expand.
4. In the current media environment ‘every magazine brand now has a wealth of
opportunities to grow its reach and revenues’. Please analyse why strategies of
expansion across distribution platforms and across international territories are
so prevalent in consumer magazine publishing and explain what you see as
being the main economic advantages and managerial challenges involved.
5. Media companies in the USA have pressed for de-regulation of ownership
restrictions on the basis that ‘they need scale to survive as big technology
companies have ravaged their business’ (Nicolaou, 2019). Do you agree?
Using examples to illustrate, please analyse the main potential economic
benefits and advantages that strategies of expansion and of cross-sectoral
diversification may bring to media companies.
! Getting started….
1. Make sure you understand the question
First, read the essay questions very carefully and choose one which seems particularly
interesting to you. Check that you understand the terminology, using a dictionary if needs be.
Then analyse the topic. What is being asked? What does it tell you about the content which you
are expected to cover? What does it tell you about how the lecturer expects you to treat that
Check the Assessment criteria in the Appendices of the Media Management Handbook as they
provide a pretty good indication as to what your markers will be looking for.
2. Write an essay plan
The essay plan should be a list of the points you want to address in the essay and the order in
which you want to address them, providing a logical structure to your argument.
3. Work out what you need to know
Remember that everything you say in the essay has to be directly relevant to the central issue.
You will save yourself a lot of time if your reading is purposeful. As you go deeper into the
subject it is likely that your strategy and reading programme will change. This is fine, but it is
good to have an initial plan, or you will waste a lot of time on irrelevant material.
4. Reading
Lecture, seminar and discussion notes cannot be your only sources at this stage although
these should prove useful in providing a ‘line’ for your inquiries. Where lecture notes are made
available (either online or in paper form), they are intended as an introduction and summary
and should not be cited or referenced in essays. It is expected that students will undertake their
own research.
A general guideline for reading is to begin with the more general references and then hone in
on more specific material as it begins to seem relevant. In addition to the reading list supplied
by the lecturer have a look at the references and bibliographies given in the books and articles
you read.
Be particularly careful if you are using web sources as primary research material because they
do vary a lot in terms of reliability. Journal articles in online academic journals (e.g. the Journal
of Media Business Studies) are a very useful resource and can be treated in the same way as
published material: give the full reference for the journal and then the web reference. Many
organisations, such as the UK communications regulator OFCOM, now have excellent
websites which they use to make available consultations, reports and documents to a wider
public. Again, this is like using a published document so make sure that you have the
information (author, date, title, page numbers etc) that you would use to reference a published
report and then add the web reference. Remember that even official websites do go out of
date. Pay particular attention to when the site was last updated and cross-check the
information if possible.
Do be aware that much information on the web is not, however, checked by other experts
through peer review or critical scrutiny and, accordingly, avoid reliance on such sources.
Anyone can publish anything on the web: this applies also to Wikipedia. Whilst it is generally
much safer to use peer reviewed material (for example, books published by university presses,
journal articles) there are cases when it might well be relevant to use some online sources too.
5. Note-taking
How you organise your notes is up to you. The main aim is to take accurate notes and to be in
the habit of jotting down page references all the time, so that you can easily look them up later,
and so you can swiftly do your references in the final draft of the essay. It is often quite useful
to put your own thoughts on what you read in brackets, or in a different colour, so that you do
not become confused. Many books on essay-writing advise you to use a card-index system of
note-taking, so that when you come to write the first draft you can plan the structure of it by
shuffling the cards around until they make sense. This is just one of many approaches. Try it, if
you like, and see how it works for you.
However, remember that essay writing is not about regurgitating the notes you have taken, but
about the organisation of your own ideas generated and supported by the background research
you have undertaken.
The First Draft
First step is to think about and then plan out a tentative structure. Typically, the structure will
involve the following:
! Introduction: Keep this tight and brief (one or two paragraphs, usually). The introduction
should introduce the essay topic and explain the approach you are taking to the question. If
necessary, provide definitions of any ambiguous or technical terminology.
! Main body: Present the material you believe to be important in a series of linked steps,
always making it clear why each point is being made and how it relates to the question. This
section forms the bulk of the essay and constitutes its ‘argument’ in the sense of a developing
presentation of your analysis of the issues.
Use appropriate signposts and linking expressions to provide a sense of how you are building
an argument: by adding ideas (first, second, third….; again; in addition; further; likewise etc…..);
comparing ideas (similarly, likewise, etc.); contrasting ideas (however, in contrast, conversely,
but, nevertheless, etc…); showing cause and effect (therefore, as a result, hence, thus….);
placing ideas in time (then, following this, so far, at first, in the future…); summarising ideas (in
summary/ conclusion, to summarise, on the whole….) and so on.
! Conclusion: Again, keep this tight and brief, and avoid introducing new material at this
stage. A concluding section should provide a summary which draws together the threads of
your response to the essay question, making it clear where you stand in relation to the main
issue(s) addressed In some cases it might be appropriate to comment on further implications of
your work, or issues that lead on from it.
NB: remember – when you start writing the essay you do not have to begin at the beginning.
Often the introduction is the hardest part. If you are getting stuck, go for a section you feel
confident about – JUST BEGIN!
Redrafting, editing and polishing
A reworking of your essay from the first draft to a carefully edited and polished final version will
usually very significantly improve its quality and, thus, the likely grade you will receive. It is
strongly recommended that you leave yourself sufficient time to review the first draft a few
hours or (better still) a few days after writing it, and then rework it with the objectivity provided
by distance.
These areas in particular are worth re-checking:
! haveyouansweredthewholequestion?
! does each point have its proper weight or have you prioritised appropriately?
! is the development of your material logical and clear?
! haveyoucheckedyourquotationsandreferences?
! what about grammar and other stylistic concerns?
! proof-read the spelling! N.B. Spellcheck programmes on word processors do not
catch out all mistakes in spelling: they do not know the word you intend! Always check
it yourself, or get someone else to look over it for you.
Style and Grammar Points
With regard to style, aim for directness and clarity. Here are some guidelines for clear analytical
! Know what you are trying to say and then get to the point. Avoid repetitive padding and
unnecessary decoration, and try to avoid crushing several ideas into a sentence.
! Try to be concise while at the same time expressing your meaning unambiguously. Use
the dictionary and a thesaurus. Avoid unnecessary jargon.
! Aim for precision and accuracy in your choice of words. Please avoid any sweeping
generalisations or vague abstractions.
! Remember to support what you are saying by mentioning evidence and relevant sources,
and/ or by use of carefully constructed argument.
! Guide the reader. You should provide some signposting to help the reader understand
the organisation of your essay and/or to follow your argument, but not spend too much time
saying what you will do next, what you have done etc. It’s a matter of finding a ‘happy balance’.
! Avoid colloquial abbreviations: ‘don’t’, ‘can’t’, ‘it’s’, etc. are not acceptable – write in full
(do not, cannot..).
! Layout: All essays must be word processed and double-spaced
! Use only one side of the page and number your pages consecutively.
! Have a title page (student no, course, essay title, date, tutor’s name).
Referencing and Plagiarism
In any essay, in your dissertation and in any other piece of assessed work you will do
as part of the Media Management programme this year, you MUST have a proper
system for referencing sources and you must attach a bibliography. In other words, a
referencing system and bibliography is obligatory.
The basic rule is that all sources drawn upon within an essay or other piece of must be
explicitly acknowledged. Whenever the ideas you are discussing draw upon someone
else’s work, this must be clearly indicated through an appropriate reference to the
original source/s.
The importance of good referencing is emphasized because, if you fail to acknowledge
sources or to put direct citations into quotation marks, this will be treated as plagiarism.
Plagiarism is something you definitely need to avoid – if any material that is plagiarised
is found within your work, it is liable to result in severe penalties under the University’s
regulations, including the potential award of a fail grade for the assignment in question.
The following section summarises the approach you ought to adopt towards
referencing. Proper referencing means acknowledging all sources of quotes and ideas.
This should provide the reader with sufficient information to find the source material,
should the reader desire to do so. Direct quotations (which are supposed to be used
only sparingly) must always be put into quotation marks. No matter how short a direct
citation is, it must be clearly indicated through the use of quotation marks at the
beginning and end of the quote and through an accompanying reference that indicates
the source.
But referencing is not only about providing the source of direct quotations. It is also involves the
need to provide the reader with a clear indication of the source for any information, ideas or
interpretations that you employ in the course of your essay or written assignment. In other
words, you must give a clear note of your source not only when using direct quotations but also
when you are paraphrasing another person’s ideas (e.g. through saying ‘According to Bloggs..’
or ‘Bloggs has argued ..’ etc.)
More on Referencing your Work
Generally speaking, there are two parts to correct referencing: (a) indicators of sources drawn
upon within the body of the essay, plus (b) a corresponding complete bibliography at the end of
the essay. Sources can be indicated in a number of different ways. One way to develop a
sense of when and how to cite is to pay attention to how it is done in your class readings.
The method we recommend for citing an author – sometimes called the Harvard system involves, rather than using footnotes, the insertion of a short version of the reference between
brackets within the text of your essay. How does this work?
The short or abbreviated reference should indicate the author’s name and the year of the
publication in question and, where appropriate, the relevant page number. So, within the body
of your essay, when you are drawing on ideas or quotes from another author or source, you
should please indicate this through (a) a short reference (which is usually contained within
brackets) and then (b), also, a full description of the work referred to in your bibliography that
comes at the end of your essay.
The Harvard system is also referred to as the ‘author-date’ system. This is because, in this
system, the only information you need to provide about the reference in the main body of your
essay is the name of the author and the date (and sometimes the page number).
Here is an example of how this works.
The following quote is taken from a book called Management and Creativity: From Creative
Industries to Creative Management by Chris Bilton. A direct quotation should be presented as
follows with the reference following in brackets.
‘The creative and media industries are increasingly characterized in terms of networks and
clusters of activity, some spontaneously formed by groups of individuals and businesses, some
artificially engineered by policy makers. Scholarly attention has focused on … the extent to
which creative work is rooted in communities and cultures’ (Bilton, 2007: 45).
The reference indicates that the quote comes from page 45 of the book by Bilton published in
2007 that is included in the bibliography.
Instead of using a direct quotation, you might well want to use your own words to simply refer
to or drawn on the ideas in Bilton’s book. Here are some examples of how you might do this
using the Harvard system:
Chris Bilton (2007: 45) has argued that, whatever their causes, clusters and networks are more
and more widely seen as a predominant feature of creative industries.
Recent successes for the computer games industry in Dundee back up Bilton’s observation
(2007: 45) that clusters of activity involving communities and networks are increasingly integral
within creative industries.
In his 2007 book, Bilton argues that creativity tends to be a communal exercise, albeit one that
benefits from systematic management.
Note that in the final example above, the ideas in Bilton’s book are being discussed in a more
general way so there is no need for any specific page number reference. Nor are any brackets
needed since, in this particular instance, both the year of publication and the author’s name are
mentioned in the body of the text.
Your bibliography should then provide full information of each source used. This includes the
author’s name (surname and initial is the norm), the date of publication, the title in full and the
name of the publisher.
• Example: Bilton, C. (2007) Management and Creativity: From Creative Industries to Creative
Management, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
This bibliographical information can be found on the reverse of the title page of any book. In the
case of a periodical or journal, a complete reference includes the name of the author, the date
of the periodical, name of the article, name of the periodical, volume number of the periodical,
and the page numbers of the article.
• Example: von Rimscha, M. B. (2006) ‘How the DVR is Changing the TV Industry – A SupplySide Perspective’, International Journal on Media Management, 8(3): 116-124.
You will probably have noticed from the above examples that there are strict rules for the use of
brackets, colons, italics and so on in bibliographies, which you should follow. The ground rules
• For titles of books and periodicals, use italics (e.g, in the above examples, Management and
Creativity: From Creative Industries to Creative Management; International Journal on Media
• In the case of periodicals, the name of the periodical itself is considered to be the title, and
should be italicised or underlined; the name of the article is put between inverted commas (e.g,
‘How the DVR is Changing the TV Industry – A Supply-Side Perspective’, International Journal
on Media Management).
The bibliography should be listed alphabetically according to author surname. It should include
not only books and articles, but any other material you used in preparing an essay, including
magazine or
newspaper articles, statistics or graphs, websites etc. It should not include works that you did
not consult.
You will notice from your reading that there are a number of different styles for referencing
used in academic texts. The Harvard method which is outlined here is the one we recommend,
but should you decide to adopt one of the other accepted conventions (e.g. the Modern
Language Association system), you should apply it consistently in your essay. For more
information on academic writing, and examples of reference styles, you may want to consult
any of the guides to writing and referencing available in the University Library.
Citing Internet Sources
The use of electronic sources is fine but, as with all other material, any ideas or quotes drawn
from the Internet must be acknowledged and attributed properly. Direct quotations – which,
again, should be used only sparingly – must always be acknowledged by putting the citation
into quotation marks and inserting a reference to its source.
The author and title of articles taken from the web should be referenced in the same way as
other articles (with the title in inverted commas). Full details of the website, the work in question
and also the date on which you accessed it should be included in your bibliography.
Doyle, Gillian (2013), Understanding Media Economics (2e), London: Sage.
Other useful general reading:
Küng, Lucy (2017), Strategic Management in the Media (Second Edition), London:
Sage. Siegert, G., Förster, K., Chan-Olmsted, S and Ots, M (Eds) (2015), Handbook of
Media Branding, Berlin: Springer. Hoskins, Colin, McFadyen, Stuart & Finn, Adam
(2004), Media Economics: Applying Economics to New and Traditional Media,
London: Sage.

Purchase answer to see full

Explanation & Answer:
2500 words

traditional and new media

User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool’s honor code & terms of service.