SEU Economics Digital Marketing Campaign Presentation

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2nd
Semester 2021 -2022
E-Marketing
The College of Administrative and Finance Sciences
E-commerce Department
E-Marketing (ECOM301)
Digital Marketing Plan Project
You work for a company as a digital marketing manager and you’ve been asked to prepare a
comprehensive digital marketing campaign. The campaign will run for the duration of one year,
starting January until December 2022.
Important note:
You can choose any company to work with as long as:
•
It is a local company.
•
It is a startup that was established in the last (3 – 6) years, 2014 onwards.
•
It can belong to any industry sector.
ECOM 301 Project
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2nd
Semester 2021 -2022
E-Marketing
Requirements
Part 1, around (1500) words: Due week 6, on 05/03/2022. (Refer to the Textbook Chapters
2, 3, 4, 5 & 6 and apply the following in the context of your company)
1. Investigate the micro-environment as part of the situation analysis for your company.
a. Competitors analysis
b. Suppliers and/or Digital Marketing intermediaries.
c. Customers’ persona.
2. Summaries the macro-environment variable your company needs to monitor when
operating the digital marketing campaign. (two or three variables for each force are
sufficient)
a. Technological forces.
b. Legal forces.
c. Economic forces.
d. Political forces.
e. Social forces.
3. Devise a digital marketing strategy for your campaign. (refer to figure 4.5, page 147 or
ch4, slide 9)
a. Where are you now? (situation analysis)
b. Where do you want to be? (business objectives)
c. How are you going to get there? (strategy)
d. How exactly do you get there? (tactics)
e. Who does what and when? (actions)
f. How do you monitor performance? (control)
4. Summaries the marketing mix best suitable for your campaign. (refer to ch5)
a. Product variables
b. Price variables
c. Place variables
d. Promotion variables
e. Process variables
ECOM 301 Project
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Semester 2021 -2022
E-Marketing
5. How can you implement relationship marketing for your campaign? (refer to ch6)
a. Could you create a virtual community? And how does it help the relationship
marketing.
b. Could you use digital media to support customers’ advocacy? And how?
ECOM 301 Project
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Semester 2021 -2022
E-Marketing
Part 2, around (1000) words: Due week 12. on 23/04/2022. (Refer to the Textbook Chapters
7, 8, 9 &10) – For legal reasons, you will not actually create business profiles and launch a
campaign on different platforms. You will merely write the proposed plan and the expected
results and accumulated costs, using real facts from the chosen used platforms. So, do the
proper research and choose wisely..
Create a campaign for your company to launch, starting January 2021 till December, that
will be active for 12 months. Marketing budget: SR 450,000 to spend on digital advertising
media over the next 12 months. The budget also includes up to SR 340,500 for advertising
creative and content development, and for the company to manage the program.
a. What is your campaign message? (about your digital campaign message)
b. What is your digital marketing campaign Schedule: recommend digital marketing
content and the schedule for the content? (Must include timeline for the content
distribution, frequency of posts and ads).
c. What platforms and digital media you will use to deploy your campaign, and for
which purpose? Social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn,
Snapchat) and any other platform that might help achieve your goals, like google,
YouTube, etc. (Must include screenshots of the platforms’ process of creating the
campaign). Also, include a table of the budget allocations for each platform on a
monthly basis. Try to justify your selection.
d. Monitoring and Optimization: describe how you will measure and improve
digital marketing performance during the campaign. What tools you will use to
monitor the campaign’s activity. (Must include screenshots of the monitoring
tools that will keep track of your costs and activity).
ECOM 301 Project
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Semester 2021 -2022
E-Marketing
Part 3, Instructors will manage the date and time for presentation during week 13&14.
Make a power-point presentation of your Project work mentioning all the above contents and
present in the class. There must be minimum 10 slides in the presentation with a good background
design, readable font size and style with appropriate color.
ECOM 301 Project
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2nd
Semester 2021 -2022
E-Marketing
Important instructions and Notes
Part 1
End of week 6 Saturday 05/03/2022
15 Marks
Part 2
End of week 12 Saturday 23/04/2022
15 Marks
Part 3
Instructors will manage the date and time for presentation during
week 13&14
40 Marks
10 Marks
1. This is an individual work.
2. You will submit online through blackboard.
3. A cover page is required for each submission, one mark will be deducted if there is no
cover page.
4. The submitted document needs to be structured as follow: a cover page, assignments’
requirements’, then your answers. without these instructions.
5. The assignments parts will be each submitted on a different date. However, part 2 needs
to contain part one.
6. The reference list, a minimum number of 10 references and citations is required, and you
must use APA referencing style.
•
Quotations must be cited to its resources.
7. The paper styles:
•
•
The format of the paper needs to be introduction, main body and conclusion.
Your work needs to be consistent in terms of style, tone and appearance.
•
Font size: 12.
•
Font type: Times New Roman,
•
Page are numbered.
•
1.5 spacing between lines and paragraphs.
•
Left alignment.
8. Entire project word count, around 2500 words.
9. You must check the spelling and grammar mistakes before submitting the
assignment. You can ask someone to proofread your work or use online tools.
ECOM 301 Project
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Semester 2021 -2022
E-Marketing
10. Up to 20% of the total grade will be deducted for providing a poor structure of
assignment. Structure includes these elements: paper style, free of spelling and
grammar errors.
11. In case of any questions, please refer to your instructor.
Best of Luck!!
ECOM 301 Project
7
DIGITAL MARKETING
STRATEGY, IMPLEMENTATION AND PRACTICE
Seventh Edition
Part 1
Digital marketing fundamentals
Chapter 1
Introducing Digital Marketing
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter 1 – Introducing Digital Marketing
Main Topics:
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•
•
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How digital marketing has transformed marketing
What are digital and multichannel marketing
Introduction to digital marketing strategy
Introduction to digital marketing communications
Case Study: eBay thrives in the global marketplace.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
How digital marketing has transformed
marketing
Digital marketing today is about many more types of audience interaction than simply websites. It
involves harnessing the following ‘5Ds of managing digital marketing interactions’, for which we need
to assess consumer adoption and how our business can manage them to support marketing goals:
•
Digital devices: Our audiences interact with businesses using a combination of smartphones,
tablets, laptops, desktop computers, TVs, gaming devices, virtual assistants (like Amazon Echo)
and other connected devices forming the Internet of Things (IoT).
•
Digital platforms: Most interactions on these devices are through a browser or apps from the
major ‘platforms’ or online services, e.g. FacebookTM (and InstagramTM), GoogleTM (and
YouTubeTM), TwitterTM, LinkedInTM, AppleTM, AmazonTM and MicrosoftTM.
•
Digital media: Different communications channels for reaching and engaging audiences are
available, including advertising, email and messaging, search engines and social networks.
•
Digital data: The insight businesses collect about their audience profiles and their interactions
with businesses now needs to be protected by law in most countries.
•
Digital technology: This is the marketing technology – or martech that businesses use to create
interactive experiences from websites and mobile apps to in-store kiosks and email campaigns.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
What are digital and multichannel
marketing?
Digital marketing can be defined as:
Achieving marketing objectives through applying digital media data
and technology
Multichannel (omni-channel) marketing:
Customer communications and product distribution are supported
by a combination of digital and traditional channels at different
points in the buying cycle or ‘path to purchase’. With the range of
mobile and IoT touchpoints, some have expanded the term to
omni-channel marketing.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Paid, owned and earned media
To help develop a strategy to reach and influence potential customers
online, it’s commonplace to refer to three main types of media channels
that marketers need to consider today:
1. Paid media: Also known as bought media, a direct payment occurs to a
site owner or an ad network when they serve an ad, a sponsorship or pay
for a click, lead or sale generated.
2. Owned media: Different forms of online media controlled by a company
including their website, blogs, email list and social media presence.
3. Earned media: The audience is reached through editorial, comments
and sharing online.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Paid, owned and earned media
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Introduction to digital marketing strategy
Key considerations:
Key features of digital marketing strategy
Applications of digital marketing
Benefits of digital marketing
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Introduction to digital marketing strategy
1. Key features of digital marketing strategy
– An effective digital marketing strategy should:
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•
•
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Be aligned with business and marketing strategy.
Use clear objectives for business and brand development and the online contribution
of leads and sales for the Internet or other digital channels
Be consistent with the types of customers who use and can be effectively reached
through the channel.
Define a compelling, differential value proposition for the channel, which must be
effectively communicated to customers.
Specify the mix of online and offline communication tools used to attract visitors to
the company website, or interact with the brand through other digital media such as
email or mobile.
Support the customer journey through the buying process as they select and
purchase products using the digital channel in combination with other channels.
Manage the online customer lifecycle through the stages of attracting visitors to the
website, converting them into customers and retention and growth.
– Value proposition: The benefits or value a brand offers to customers in its products
and services.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Introduction to digital marketing strategy
2. Applications of digital marketing:
For established multichannel organisations, digital media offer a range of
opportunities for marketing products and services across the purchase cycle
that companies need to review as part of their digital strategy.
Digital media and technologies can be used as follows:
1. Advertising medium.
2. Direct-response medium.
3. Platform for sales transactions.
4. Lead-generation method.
5. Distribution channel, such as for distributing digital products.
6. Customer service mechanism.
7. Relationship-building medium.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Introduction to digital marketing strategy
3. Benefits of digital marketing:
The benefits of digital marketing in supporting marketing is suggested by applying
the definition of marketing by the Chartered Institute of Marketing (www.cim.co.uk):
– Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying,
anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.
This definition emphasises the focus of marketing on the customer, while at the
same time implying a need to link to other business operations to achieve this
profitability.
– Digital marketing can be used to support these aims as follows:
Identifying. The Internet can be used for marketing research to find out customers’
needs and wants.
Anticipating. The Internet provides an additional channel by which customers can
access information and make purchases – evaluating this demand is key to
governing resource allocation to e-marketing.
Satisfying. A key success factor in e-marketing is achieving customer satisfaction
through the electronic channel, which raises issues such as is the site easy to use.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Challenges in developing and managing
digital marketing strategy
1. There are unclear responsibilities for the many different digital marketing
activities.
2. No specific objectives are set for digital marketing.
3. Insufficient budget is allocated for digital marketing because customer
demand for online services is underestimated and competitors potentially
gain market share through superior online activities.
4. Budget is wasted as different parts of an organisation experiment with using
different techniques, martech suppliers without achieving economies of
scale.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Challenges in developing and managing
digital marketing strategy
5. New online value propositions for customers are not developed since the
Internet is treated as ‘just another channel to market’ without review of
opportunities to offer improved, differentiated online services.
6. Results from digital marketing are not measured or reviewed adequately, so
actions cannot be taken to improve effectiveness.
7. An experimental rather than planned approach is taken to using ecommunications with poor integration between online and offline marketing
communications.
Given the future importance of digital marketing, larger organisations have
introduced digital transformation programmes to help manage these
challenges.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Challenges in developing and managing
digital marketing strategy
Digital Transformation:
A staged programme of business improvements to people, process and tools
used for integrated digital marketing to maximise the potential contribution of
digital technology and media to business growth.
– Altimeter produced a visual proposing enablers and barriers to digital
transformation (Figure 1.7). It shows how disruptive digital technologies such
as social media, mobile platforms and real-time marketing should be
harnessed to create an effective digital customer experience.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
A strategic framework for developing a
digital marketing strategy
-To realise the benefits of digital marketing and avoid the pitfalls, an
organisation needs to develop a planned, structured approach.
– Figure 1.8 suggested a process for developing and implementing a
digital marketing plan. This diagram highlights the key activities and
their dependencies, which are involved for the creation of a typical
digital marketing strategy, and relates them to coverage in different
chapters.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Introduction to digital marketing
communications
-Marketing campaigns were based on traditional media including TV, print and radio ads
and direct mail supported by public relations. But, in a few short years, since the web
concept was first proposed in the late 1980s by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, there have been
huge changes in marketing communications.
-The digital equivalents of these traditional media, which are known as digital media
channels, are vital components of most marketing campaigns today.
-For example, in an online campaign, marketers can use ads and content on social media
to engage audiences:
– Display ads, the familiar banner and skyscraper ads seen on many online publisher
sites
– Pay-per-click (PPC) ads, such as the Sponsored Google Ads adverts in Google;
– Search engine optimisation (SEO) to gain higher positions in the natural listings of
Google.
– Affiliate marketing, where sites that generate a sale for a merchant gain commission. – Email marketing, which is most effective when messages are sent to an existing
customer base – i.e. customers who have given their permission to receive them.
Source: Smart Insights (2010)
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Introduction to digital marketing
communications
-But the approaches used to target the online audience are potentially
very different, with personalisation based on the customer profile and
previous interactions with communications giving many options to
deliver more timely, relevant messages.
-(Personalised communications are also effective on the website,
where landing pages are commonly used to make the page more
relevant to what the customer is seeking.)
-Leading websites also provide great opportunities to engage the visitor
through in-depth text content, rich media such as video and audio and
participation in customer communities.
Source: Smart Insights (2010)
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Using digital media channels to support
business objectives
RACE consists of four steps designed to help engage prospects, customers
and fans with brands throughout the customer lifecycle:
Step 1: Reach – Build awareness of a brand, its products and services on
other sites and in offline media and build traffic by driving visits to web and
social media presences.
Step 2: Act – Engage audience with brand on its website or other online
presence to encourage them to interact with a company or other customers. In
many sectors, the aim of the Act stage is lead generation, i.e. to gain
permission to market to a prospect using email, SMS or mobile app
notifications.
Source: Smart Insights (2010)
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Using digital media channels to support
business objectives
Step 3: Convert – Achieve conversion to generate sales on web presences and
offline.
Step 4: Engage – Build customer relationships through time to achieve
retention goals.
-Digital channels always work best when they are integrated with other
channels so, where appropriate, digital channels should be combined with the
traditional offline media and channels.
-The most important aspects of integration are, first, using traditional media to
raise awareness of the value of the online presences at the Reach and Act
stages and, second, at the Convert and Engage steps where customers may
prefer to interact with customer representatives.
Source: Smart Insights (2010)
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Figure 1.9 RACE: Reach-Act (Interact)-ConvertEngage
Source: Smart Insights (2010)
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Types of digital media channels
There are many online communications tools that marketers must review as
part of their communications strategy or as part of planning an online marketing
campaign. Online marketing tools are divided into six main groups , as shown
in Figure 1.10.
1. Search engine marketing. Gaining visibility on a search engine to encourage
click-through to a website when the user types a specific keyword phrase.
2. Online PR. Maximising favourable mentions of your company, brands, products
or websites on third-party websites such as social networks, blogs, podcasts or
feeds that are likely to be visited by your target audience.
3. Online partnerships. Creating and managing long-term arrangements to
promote your online services on third-party websites or through email
communications. Different forms of partnership include link building, affiliate
marketing, aggregators such as price comparison sites, online sponsorship and comarketing.
Source: Chaffey and Smith (2017)
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Types of digital media channels
4. Display advertising. Use of online ads such as banners and rich media ads
to achieve brand awareness and encourage click-through to a target site.
5. Opt-in email marketing. Placing ads in third-party e-newsletters or the use
of an in-house list for customer activation and retention. Buying or renting lists
of email addresses is considered as a spamming technique and not permitted
under the privacy legislation.
6. Social media marketing. Companies participate and advertise within social
networks and communities to reach and engage their audience. Viral marketing
or online word-of-mouth messages are closely related to this. Here content is
shared or messages are forwarded to help achieve awareness and, in some
cases, drive response.
Source: Chaffey and Smith (2017)
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 1.10 Six categories of digital
communications tools or media channels
Source: Chaffey and Smith (2017)
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Benefits of Digital Media
– Digital marketing communications differ significantly from conventional
marketing communications because digital media enables new forms of
interaction and new models for information exchange.
– A useful summary of the differences between new media and traditional media
was originally developed by McDonald and Wilson (1999) and is still valid –
they describe the ‘6Is of the e-marketing mix’, which are practical benefits of
digital marketing that the marketer should exploit.
1. Interactivity.
2. Intelligence.
3. Individualisation.
4. Integration.
5. Industry restructuring.
6. Independence of location.
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Benefits of Digital Media – Interactivity:
Figure 1.11(a) shows how traditional media are predominantly push media where the marketing
message is broadcast from company to customer, although interaction can be encouraged through
direct response to phone, website or social media page. However, online it is often the customer who
initiates contact and is seeking information through researching information on a website.
In other words, it is a ‘pull’ mechanism where it is particularly important to have good visibility in
search engines when customers are entering search terms relevant to a company’s products or
services. Amongst marketing professionals this powerful new approach to marketing is now commonly
known as inbound marketing.
Inbound marketing:
The consumer is proactive in seeking out information for their needs, and interactions with brands are
attracted through content, search and social media marketing.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Benefits of Digital Media – Interactivity:
Figure 1.11(b) shows how digital media should be used to encourage two-way
communications, which may be extensions of the direct-response approach.
For example, FMCG suppliers use their website or Facebook presence as a method of
generating interaction by providing incentives such as competitions and sales promotions
to encourage the customer to respond with their names, addresses and profile
information such as age and sex.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Benefits of Digital Media – Intelligence:
– Digital media and technology can be used as a relatively low-cost method of
collecting marketing research, particularly about customer perceptions of products and
services.
Interactions with consumers across all the different touchpoints shown in Figure 1.1.
can be stored in data lakes or data warehouses to provide insight collectively known
as ‘Big Data’.
– Data lake and data warehouse:
A data lake is a storage repository that holds a diversity of raw data in its native format
where it is available for analysis and reporting by people across a company. This
contrasts to a data warehouse, which contains structured data.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Benefits of Digital Media – Individualisation:
Another important feature of interactive
marketing communications is that they can
be tailored to the individual (Figure
1.12(b)) at relatively low costs, unlike in
traditional media where the same
message tends to be broadcast to
everyone (Figure 1.12(a)).
This individualisation is based on the
intelligence collected about site visitors
and then stored in a database and
subsequently used to target and
personalise communications to customers
to achieve relevance in all media.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Benefits of Digital Media – Integration:
The Internet provides further scope for integrated marketing communications.
Figure 1.13 shows the role of the Internet in multichannel marketing. When assessing
the marketing effectiveness of a website, the role of the Internet in communicating with
customers and other partners can best be considered from two perspectives.
1. Outbound digital communications:
Website, mobile push notifications or email marketing are used to send personalised
communications to customers.
2. Inbound digital communications:
Customers enquire through web-based forms, social media and email.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Benefits of Digital Media – Industry
restructuring:
Disintermediation and reintermediation are key concepts of industry
restructuring that should be considered by any company developing a digital
marketing strategy.
– Disintermediation:
The removal of intermediaries such as distributors or brokers that formerly
linked a company to its customers.
– Reintermediation:
The creation of new intermediaries between customers and suppliers
providing services such as supplier search and product evaluation.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Benefits of Digital Media – Independence of
location:
Electronic media also introduce the possibility of increasing the reach of
company communications to the global market.
This gives opportunities to sell into international markets, which may not
previously have been possible. The Internet makes it possible to sell to a
country without a local sales or customer service force (although this may still
be necessary for some products).
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Key communication concepts for digital
marketing
The three key concepts that underpin digital communications and inbound
marketing across the digital media:
1. Permission marketing: Customers agree (opt in) to be involved in an
organisation’s marketing activities, usually as a result of an incentive.
2. Content marketing: The management of text, rich media, audio and video
content aimed at engaging customers and prospects to meet business goals
published through print and digital media including web and mobile platforms
which is repurposed and syndicated to different forms of web presence such as
publisher sites, blogs, social media and comparison sites.
-Content marketing hub:
A central branded location where your audience can access and interact with all
your key content marketing assets. In a practical sense, the content hub can be
a blog or new section, an online customer magazine or a resource centre.
3. Customer engagement: Customer engagement
Repeated interactions through the customer lifecycle prompted by online and
offline communications aimed at strengthening the long-term emotional,
psychological and physical investment a customer has with a brand.
Source: Smart Insights (2015a)
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
DIGITAL MARKETING
STRATEGY, IMPLEMENTATION AND PRACTICE
Seventh Edition
Part 1
Digital marketing fundamentals
Chapter 2
Online marketplace analysis:
micro-environment
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter 2 – Online marketplace analysis:
micro-environment
Main Topics:
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Situation analysis for digital marketing
Digital marketing environment
Understanding customer in digital markets
Consumer. Choice and digital influence
Customer characteristics
Competitors
Suppliers
New channel structures
Digital business models for e-commerce
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Situation analysis for digital marketing
The digital marketing environment or ‘online marketplace’ that an organisation competes
in is complex and dynamic. Organisations should carefully analyse the market context in
which they operate, identify opportunities and then plan how they can compete
effectively.
Understanding an organisation’s environment is a key part of situation analysis and forms
a solid foundation for all types of marketing planning but especially when devising a
digital marketing strategy.
Situation analysis
Collection and review of information about an organisation’s external environment and
internal resources and processes in order to refine its strategy.
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Situation analysis for digital marketing
Situation analysis should review the following factors:
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Customers. Digital marketing propositions and communications should be based around the
customer – their characteristics, technology usage, behaviors, needs and wants.
Marketplace analysis. Including intermediaries, influencers and potential partners. This involves
identifying and reviewing the main online influences on purchase behaviors. There are many
influences to consider, including search engines, publisher media sites, blogs, review sites and
social networks. Marketplace analysis also involves reviewing opportunities and threats from
digital media and technology, including new business and revenue models.
Competitors. It is essential to understand how organizations compete in a particular marketplace;
benchmarking customer propositions and communications activities against direct and indirect
competitors and out-of-sector businesses can identify opportunities for new approaches and
digital marketing activities that need to be improved.
Wider macro-environment. These are the broader strategic influences including social, legal,
environmental, political and technological influences.
Internal review. Another major part of the situation involves an inward-looking, internal review of
the effectiveness of existing digital marketing approaches. This will include reviewing current
results from digital marketing by review of key performance indicators (KPIs) and dashboards and
the organizational capabilities and processes used to manage digital marketing, summarised as
strengths and weaknesses.
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The digital marketing environment
? The (digital) marketing environment involves two major elements:
1) micro- environment and 2) macro-environment (Figure 2.1).
? The micro-environment is known as the operating environment and
focuses on the players that shape the immediate trading environment.
These players include the customers whose needs and wants are to be
satisfied, along with the competitors, intermediaries and suppliers. These
groups of players shape the online marketplace, and a digital marketer
needs to understand their behaviors and interpret this correctly in order to
build and adapt an efficient and effective digital marketing strategy.
? The macro-environment, sometimes known as ‘the remote environment’,
consists of external forces that can significantly affect success. These
forces originate from the marketplace that is largely beyond the immediate
control of an organisation (e.g. economic conditions, changes to
international trade legislation, technological developments and innovations,
social change and political interventions).
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Figure 2.1 The digital marketing environment
– Micro-environment
The players (actors) and their interactions, which influence how an organisation responds in its
marketplace.
– Macro-environment
Broad forces affecting all organisations in the marketplace, including social, technological,
economic, political, legal and ecolo