SDSU Interest and Equivalence Economic Case Study

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CASE STUDY RESEARCH PAPER- REPORT FALL 2021
CON E 330 All Section Case Study Research Report MS word Format
Guideline Fall 2021
1) Total points 100
2) All Case Study Assignment on CANVAS
3) Individual work. 10-12 pages. All written submissions must be typed in 12-point font and double spaced.
4) The papers should be logically organized, reflect a theoretical or research foundation where applicable.
5) On Cover Page. a) Title of your Case Study Report b) Last Name c) First name,
d) Professor Hemati f) Fall 2021
Select a Case Study to cover 3-4 topics We discussed and apply in your field of your Major-Program of study; related
to Process developments or Services, of Application and Implementation of capital equipment’s Selections and
Replacements, and/ or Future needs.
Interest and Equivalence Economic; Present Worth and Annual Cash Flow Analysis
Choosing the Best Alternative; Income Tax; Replacement Analysis; Inflation and Price Change
Safety and Environmental Needs in the Public or Private Sector.
Application: Case Study:
100 Points
•
Proposal of Case Study; Explain the Issues or concerns and report
10 points
•
Apply various Engineering Economy techniques (at least 3-methods)
20 points
•
Apply relevant formulas and Assumption for financial analysis.
10 points
•
Explanation in Detail economy analysis in the Private or Public sector
20 points
•
Apply economic analysis in managerial decision and recommendations
20 points
•
With are alternatives and future risk, factor?
10 points
•
Conclusion and Recommendations with alternative options
10 points
CON E 330 Fall 2021 College of Engineering Dept, CCEE
1
CASE STUDY RESEARCH PAPER- REPORT FALL 2021
CASE STUDY RESEARCH PAPER- REPORT EVALUATION FORM
Area
Analysis
Synthesis
Vocabulary
/Rhetoric
nics and sentence
structure
rch (if applicable)
nitin Originality
Outstanding (9-10)
Good (7.5-9)
Fair (6-7.5)
The detail and
cope of the
information
incorporated into
the project
demonstrates
considerable
familiarity.
Facts, key
concepts and
principles were
presented in an
orderly fashion
with logically
sound
conclusions.
The student
brought together
ideas around to
create a
meaningful,
coherent essay.
The student could
have provided detail
and scope.
The student had
some difficulty
furnishing
sufficient evidence.
The student
failed to provide
information that
is accurate and
relevant to the
project.
The student’s
presentation of
facts, and principles
was orderly; with
one erroneous
inference.
Some of the facts
are presented in a
disorderly fashion
with some
erroneous
inferences.
The student brought
together ideas;
however, sufficient
context is lacking.
The student has
demonstrated
vocabulary and
variety in
expression
superior to this
grade level.
The student
consistently uses
correct
grammar,
syntax, spelling,
punctuation, and
capitalization.
The student has
demonstrated
vocabulary and
variety in expression
expected at this
grade level.
The essay contains
satisfactory factual
and conceptual
content, but is
presented in a
disjointed,
“grocery list”
fashion.
The student has
not demonstrated
vocabulary or
variety in
expression
expected at this
grade level.
The student has an
average of 3 or 4
errors per page in
grammar, syntax,
spelling,
punctuation, and
capitalization.
Presentation of
facts, key
concepts and
principles is
disorderly and
there are
multiple errors in
reasoning.
The student has
failed to
construct a
coherent essay
built around an
identifiable
organizing theme
or concept.
The student has
utilized a
vocabulary with
little or no range
and/or no variety
in expression.
The student has
used a wide
variety of,,
informative and
relevant sources.
Less than 12%
The student has
used a enough
sources.
The student has
provided sources
but had difficulty
integrating them.
12-15%
15-20%
The student has an
average of fewer
than 3 errors per
page in grammar,
syntax, spelling,
punctuation, and
capitalization.
Poor (below 6)
The student has
an average of
more than 4
errors per page
in grammar,
syntax, spelling,
punctuation, and
capitalization.
The student has
failed to provide
enough relevant
sources for this
assignment.
20-25%
CON E 330 Fall 2021 College of Engineering Dept, CCEE
2
CASE STUDY RESEARCH PAPER- REPORT FALL 2021
Course Objectives
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
To Offer Framework for cost management in engineering Projects.
To offer assistance in managerial decision making
To introduce fundamentals of Personal, Private and Public-sector Financing Engineering Projects
Apply Mathematics of finance to engineering and managerial decision making.
Introduce the fundamentals of economic analysis used in engineering decision making.
To introduce Economic Analysis of Replacement and Retention Decisions
To prepare students for PE/FE Examinations
Course Learning Outcomes:
This course is one of many that you will take towards your degree in Civil, Construction or Environmental Engineering. Each of our
courses are designed as part of your career development in your respective Engineering profession. Program Outcomes are intended to
provide a broad base of knowledge to find your career. However, each course in the curriculum emphasizes particular aspects of that
overall body of knowledge. Although other outcomes may also be addressed, this course is intended to have a particular emphasis on the
following program outcomes
OUTCOME 4: An ability to recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgments,
which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts.
Assessed by: Homework, Midterm and Final Exam
a) Formulate and solve time value of money problems
b) Apply various Engineering Economy techniques to compare engineering alternatives.
OUTCOME 9: An ability to analyze and design construction processes and systems in a construction engineering specialty field,
applying knowledge of methods, materials, equipment, planning, scheduling, safety, and cost analysis.
Assessed by: Case Study
a) Apply results of economic analysis in managerial decision making
b) Apply relevant formulas for financial analysis
OUTCOME 11: An ability to explain basic concepts of management topics such as economics, business, accounting, communications,
leadership, decision and optimization methods, engineering economics, engineering management, and cost control.
Assessed by: Homework and _Case Study and Quizzes
a) Explain relevance of engineering economy analysis in the private sector
b) Explain relevance of engineering economy analysis in the public sector
CON E 330 Fall 2021 College of Engineering Dept, CCEE
3
CASE STUDY RESEARCH PAPER- REPORT FALL 2021

Writing a Research Paper
Some general guidelines to keep in mind while writing a research paper.
Finding a Researchable Topic
•
•
•
Try to narrow down two or three topics that truly interests you
Talk with your course instructor and classmates about your topics
Pose your topics as a question to be answered or a problem to be solved
Finding, Selecting, and Reading Sources
You will need to look at the following types of sources:
•
•
•
•
Look up library books using catalog on End of each chapter of the Book- Case or library page on the website. Search
using the keyword or subject.
Use LIRN. This database has peer reviewed full text articles, E-books, newspaper articles etc.
Open courseware, Magazine and newspaper articles can provide you with some facts.
Primary vs. secondary sources
Documenting Information
The following systems will help keep you organized:
•
•
•
Create an annotated bibliography for all your resources. This allows you to cite, summarize and evaluate resources.
Use Bibme, Citefast or Refdot etc. to organize your content
If you want to use 10 references, plan to research three times more that would be around 30.
Start your paper from bottom up
•
•
•
•
Start by writing references.
Once you have enough material to start, work on the topic, its significance, etc.
Use your referenced material to enhance your topic, refute it or build on it.
Any time a quote is used from the above-organized material, provide in text citation.
Writing the Body
•
•
•
•
Use outline and prospectus as flexible guides
Build your essay around points you want to make (i.e., don’t let your sources organize your paper)
Integrate your sources into your discussion
Summarize, analyze, explain, and evaluate published work rather than merely reporting it
CON E 330 Fall 2021 College of Engineering Dept, CCEE
4
CASE STUDY RESEARCH PAPER- REPORT FALL 2021
Writing Abstract
•
After completing your paper, write an abstract summarizing the paper.
References
•
•
Make sure all the in-text citations have references. In APA, references have to be alphabetized. They have to follow
hanging indentation.
Generally, balance your references by having some from peer-reviewed journals, some from books and some from
internet resources.
Revise the Final Draft
•
•
•
•
Go through the APA format checklist.
Make sure there is no bias in writing.
Put the paper through plagiarism detector
Check capitalizations, indents, levels of headings, in text citations, tables etc. for correct usage
CON E 330 Fall 2021 College of Engineering Dept, CCEE
5
CON E 330
Case Study Research Report – Highway Project Landfill
Dr. Hossein Hemati
Andrés Herrera
Class ID # 9
Spring 2020
04/30/20
Contents
1.
Background……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
2.
Proposal …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
3.
Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
3.1.
3.1.1.
Costs Calculations ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
3.1.2.
Present Worth Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………….. 7
3.1.3.
Annual Cash Flow Analysis ………………………………………………………………………….. 7
3.2.
5.
Depreciation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
3.2.1.
Straight-Line Depreciation …………………………………………………………………………… 7
3.2.2.
SOYD Method …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
3.3.
4.
Two Years Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Five Years analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
3.3.1.
Present Worth Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………… 11
3.3.2.
Annual Cash Flow Analysis ………………………………………………………………………… 11
Recommendation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
4.1.
Economic Recommendation ………………………………………………………………………………. 12
4.2.
Environmental Recommendation ………………………………………………………………………. 12
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
1. Background
Route 39, in Costa Rica, is a highway of utmost importance to the country because it
connects to the most important roads in the country that go to the Caribbean and to the
Pacific area of the country without the need to enter community streets without the ability
to withstand large vehicular flows. Currently the route has level intersections that consist of
traffic lights or roundabouts. In the past, this type of intersection worked without problem
because the vehicle flow was extremely low, but in recent years Costa Rica has experienced
an increase in its vehicle fleet, collapsing the roads. According to the newspaper The
Republic of the country, Costa Rica is the third country with the highest vehicle density in
Latin America with an average of 231 cars per 1,000 people.
Figure 1. Current roundabout.
Source. CR Hoy newspaper
Currently, the Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MOPT in Spanish) has within
its plans to intervene all the intersections at the level of Route 39 to allow a smooth
passage. One of these intersections is a roundabout called La Bandera Roundabout. This
intersection is planned to be intervened in the second semester of 2020 if there are no
appeals from companies that were not selected for the project. The project consists of a
tunnel that allows the smooth passage of Route 39 and maintain the roundabout at a level
which allows vehicular interchange between the surrounding streets.
1
Figure 2. Design of the new roundabout.
Source. MOPT.
2
2. Proposal
Your company was selected to carry out the work and one of the great activities of the
project is the excavation of the tunnel which requires the removal of 112,000 m of earth
that is equivalent to 146,490 cy. The total duration of the project is 2 years and your
company need to buy new machinery because the ones they currently have reached the end
of their useful life or are being used in other projects. You have two brands of excavators to
choose from, CAT or John Deere. Below are the specifications of each of these:
Table 1. Specifications of the two alternatives.
Fuel Tank Capacity (Gal)
Engine Oil (Gal)
Hydraulic System (Gal)
DEF Tank (Gal)
CAT 336 GC
158.5
6.6
98.5
50
John Deere 470 LC
178
7.5
82
50
Source. CAT & John Deere
From an investigation carried out by the company team, the following was found:
Oil:
• The oil change for this type of machinery is carried out every 250 hours of work.
• The price of a gallon is $7.55 for CAT 336 GC and $7.90 for John Deere 470 LC
Hydraulic Fluid:
• The change of this fluid is carried out every 2500 hours of work.
• The price of a gallon is $6.30 for CAT 336 GC and $5.80 for John Deere 470 LC
Diesel:
•
•
CAT 336 GC consumes 10.50 gallons per hour and John Deere 470 LC consumes
12 gallons per hour.
Diesel price is $2.40 per gallon.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF):
• It is calculated that for every 50 gallons of diesel, 1 gallon of DEF fluid is consumed
for both models.
• Fluid price is $5 per gallon for both models.
It is also known that the cost of CAT 336 GC is $400,000 and that of John Deere 470
LC $435,000 and the cost of the annual spare parts are $6,000 for CAT 336 GC and $7,000
for John Deere 470 LC.
3
3. Analysis
For this document, 3 types of analysis will be carried out, one at 2 years, then the
depreciation will be determined at 5 years and finally an analysis will be carried out again,
but instead of 2 years, will perform at 5 years considering the salvage value.
3.1.
Two Years Analysis
For the present analysis, a working day of 5 days and 8 hours of work per day during the
2 years will be considered without any variation plus a MAAR of 18%. Now, from the
information provided above, we proceed to calculate the annual costs of the following
elements:
3.1.1. Costs Calculations
First, we must determine all the costs to be able to carry out the respective analysis
Work hours per year:
Data:
•
•
•
52 weeks per year.
5 days per week.
8 hours per day.
Analysis:
To find out the working hours per year the following calculation is made:
52
??????????
????????
?????????
?5
?8
= ??, ?????? ??????????/????????
????????
????????
??????
Oil:
Data:
•
•
Change every 250 hours.
The price of a gallon is $7.55 for CAT 336 GC and $7.90 for John Deere 470 LC.
Analysis:
First, we proceed to calculate the number of oil changes required per year:
2,080
?????????
?????????
÷ 250
= 8.32 ? ?? ?????? ??????????????
????????
1 ???????????
Then, we determine the price for 1 oil change in each model:
For CAT 336 GC:
For John Deere 470 LC:
7.55
$
??????
? 6.6
= $49.83
??????
????????
7.90
$
??????
? 7.5
= $59.25
??????
????????
4
Now, we can determine the total cost per year:
For CAT 336 GC:
49.83
$
?????? ?????????????
?9
= $??????. ????
????????
????????
For John Deere 470 LC:
59.25
$
?????? ?????????????
?9
= $??????. ????
????????
????????
Hydraulic Fluid:
Data:
•
•
Change every 2500 hours.
The price of a gallon is $6.30 for CAT 336 GC and $5.80 for John Deere 470 LC.
Analysis:
First, we proceed to calculate the number of oil changes required per year:
2,080
?????????
?????????
÷ 2500
= 0.83 ? ?? ?????????????????? ?????????? ????????????
????????
1 ???????????
Then, we determine the price for 1 oil change in each model:
For CAT 336 GC:
For John Deere 470 LC:
6.30
$
??????
?1
???????????
????????
= $??. ????
5.80
$
??????
?1
???????????
????????
= $??. ????
Diesel:
Data:
•
•
CAT 336 GC consumes 10.50 gallons per hour and John Deere 470 LC consumes
12 gallons per hour.
Diesel price is $2.40 per gallon.
Analysis:
First, we calculate the number of gallons per year from the hourly consumption of both
models:
For CAT 336 GC:
For John Deere 470 LC:
?????????
??????
??????
2080
? 10.50
= ????, ??????
????????
???????
????????
?????????
??????
??????
2080
? 12
= ????, ??????
????????
???????
????????
5
From the annual consumption, we proceed to calculate the cost of diesel:
For CAT 336 GC:
21,840
For John Deere 470 LC:
??????
$
? 2.40
= $????, ??????/????????
????????
??????
24,960
??????
$
? 2.40
= $????, ??????/????????
????????
??????
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF):
Data:
•
•
1 gallon of DEF per 50 gallons of diesel.
Fluid price is $5 per gallon for both models.
Analysis:
First, we calculate the number of gallons per year from the hourly consumption of both
models:
For CAT 336 GC:
21,840
For John Deere 470 LC:
?????????
??????
÷ 50 ?????? = ??????
????????
????????
From this, the annual cost is calculated:
For CAT 336 GC:
437
?????????
??????
÷ 50 ?????? = ??????
????????
????????
24,960
For John Deere 470 LC:
??????
$
? 5.00
= $??, ??????
????????
??????
499
??????
$
? 5.00
= $??, ??????
????????
??????
The following is a summary of the costs of the alternatives:
Table 2. Summary of the costs from the two alternatives.
Type of Cost
Initial Cost
Annual Oil Change Cost
Annual Diesel Cost (per Gallon)
Annual Hydraulic Fluid Cost
Annual DEF Fluid Cost
Annual Spare Parts Cost
$
$
$
$
$
$
CAT 336 GC
400,000.00
448.50
52,416.00
6.30
2,185.00
6,000.00
Jhon Deere 470 LC
$
435,000.00
$
533.25
$
59,904.00
$
5.80
$
2,495.00
$
7,000.00
Source. Own Authorship
If we make the sum of all annual costs, we obtain the following:
For CAT 336 GC:
For John Deere 470 LC:
???????????? ?????????? = $????, ??????. ????
???????????? ?????????? = $????, ??????. ????
6
3.1.2. Present Worth Analysis
First, an analysis will be carried out with the Present Worth to determine which of the
two alternatives is the most suitable using the established MAAR of 18%:
For CAT 336 GC:
???? = $400,000 + $61,055.80 ? (??/??, 18%, 2)
???? = $400,000 + $61,055.80 ? (6.128)
???? = $??????, ??????. ????
For John Deere 470 LC:
???? = $435,000 + $69,938.05 ? (??/??, 18%, 2) =
???? = $435,000 + $69,938.05 ? (6.128)
???? = $??????, ??????. ????
3.1.3. Annual Cash Flow Analysis
Now, an Annual Cash Flow Analysis will be made to the of both alternatives to
determine which is the most suitable using the established MAAR of 18%:
For CAT 336 GC:
???????? = $400,00 ? (??/??, 18%, 2) + $61,055.80
???????? = $400,00 ? (0.6387) + $61,055.80
???????? = $??????, ??????. ????
For John Deere 470 LC:
???????? = $435,000 ? (??/??, 18%, 2) + $69,938.05
???????? = $435,000 ? (0.6387) + $69,938.05
???????? = $??????, ??????. ????
3.2.
Depreciation
Now, the equipment depreciation analysis will be developed using two methods, the
Straight-Line Depreciation and the SOYD Method, for this case we are going to assume a
Depreciable life of 5 years.
3.2.1. Straight-Line Depreciation
For CAT 336 GC:
Data:
•
•
•
Cost: $400,000.
Depreciable life: 5 years.
Salvage value: $200,000.
7
Analysis:
First, we determine the Annual Depreciation Charge:
?????
??
$400,000 ? $200,000
???????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????? =
5 ??????????
???????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? = $????, ??????
???????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????? =
Now, we can determine the depreciation:
Table 3. Straight-Line Depreciation for CAT 336 GC
Depreciation
for year
Year
1
2
3
4
5
$
$
$
$
$
40,000.00
40,000.00
40,000.00
40,000.00
40,000.00
Sum of Depreciation
Book Value
at the end of year
$ 40,000.00
$ 80,000.00
$ 120,000.00
$ 160,000.00
$ 200,000.00
$ 360,000.00
$ 320,000.00
$ 280,000.00
$ 240,000.00
$ 200,000.00
Source. Own Authorship
For John Deere 470 LC:
Data:
•
•
•
Cost: $435,000.
Depreciable life: 5 years.
Salvage value: $250,000.
Analysis:
First, we determine the Annual Depreciation Charge:
?????
??
$435,000 ? $250,000
???????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????? =
5 ??????????
???????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? = $????, ??????
???????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????? =
8
Now, we can determine the depreciation:
Table 4. Straight-Line Depreciation for Jhon Deere 470 LC
Year
1
2
3
4
5
Depreciation
for year
$
$
$
$
$
Sum of Depreciation
Book Value
at the end of year
$ 37,000.00
$ 74,000.00
$ 111,000.00
$ 148,000.00
$ 185,000.00
$ 398,000.00
$ 361,000.00
$ 324,000.00
$ 287,000.00
$ 250,000.00
37,000.00
37,000.00
37,000.00
37,000.00
37,000.00
Source. Own Authorship
3.2.2. SOYD Method
For CAT 336 GC:
Data:
•
•
•
Cost: $400,000.
Depreciable life: 5 years.
Salvage value: $200,000.
Analysis:
First, we determine the SOYD:
?? ? (?? + 1)
2
5 ? (5 + 1)
???????? =
2
???????? = ????
???????? =
The, we calculate the depreciation charge in years:
???? =
?????+1
? (?? ? ??)
????????
With this formula we obtain the following:
Table 5. Depreciation charge in years for CAT 336 GC
d1
d2
d3
d4
d5
$
$
$
$
$
66,666.67
53,333.33
40,000.00
26,666.67
13,333.33
Source. Own Authorship
9
Finally, we can calculate the depreciation:
Table 6. SOYD Method for CAT 336 GC
Year
1
2
3
4
5
Depreciation
for year
$
$
$
$
$
Sum of Depreciation
Book Value
at the end of year
$ 66,666.67
$ 120,000.00
$ 160,000.00
$ 186,666.67
$ 200,000.00
$ 333,333.33
$ 280,000.00
$ 240,000.00
$ 213,333.33
$ 200,000.00
66,666.67
53,333.33
40,000.00
26,666.67
13,333.33
Source. Own Authorship
For John Deere 470 LC:
Data:
•
•
•
Cost: $435,000.
Depreciable life: 5 years.
Salvage value: $250,000.
Analysis:
First, we determine the SOYD:
?? ? (?? + 1)
2
5 ? (5 + 1)
???????? =
2
???????? = ????
???????? =
Then, we calculate the depreciation charge in years:
???? =
?????+1
? (?? ? ??)
????????
With this formula we obtain the following:
Table 7. Depreciation charge in years for Jhon Deere 470 LC
d1
d2
d3
d4
d5
$
$
$
$
$
61,666.67
49,333.33
37,000.00
24,666.67
12,333.33
Source. Own Authorship
10
Finally, we can calculate the depreciation:
Table 8. SOYD Method for Jhon Deere 470 LC
Year
1
2
3
4
5
Depreciation
for year
$
$
$
$
$
61,666.67
49,333.33
37,000.00
24,666.67
12,333.33
Sum of Depreciation
Book Value
at the end of year
$ 61,666.67
$ 111,000.00
$ 148,000.00
$ 172,666.67
$ 185,000.00
$ 373,333.33
$ 324,000.00
$ 287,000.00
$ 262,333.33
$ 250,000.00
Source. Own Authorship
3.3.
Five Years analysis
For this analysis we are going to consider the salvage value calculated in the section 3.2
for both cases.
3.3.1. Present Worth Analysis
First, an analysis will be carried out with the Present Worth to determine which of the
two alternatives is the most suitable using the established MAAR of 18%:
For CAT 336 GC:
???? = $400,000 + $61,055.80 ? (??/??, 18%, 5) ? $200,000 ? (??/??, 18%, 5)
???? = $400,000 + $61,055.80 ? (3.127) ? $200,000 ? (0.4371)
???? = $??????, ??????. ????
For John Deere 470 LC:
???? = $435,000 + $69,938.05 ? (??/??, 18%, 5) ? $250,000 ? (??/??, 18%, 5) =
???? = $435,000 + $69,938.05 ? (3.127) ? $250,000 ? (0.4371)
???? = $??????, ??????. ????
3.3.2. Annual Cash Flow Analysis
Now, an Annual Cash Flow Analysis will be made to the of both alternatives to
determine which is the most suitable using the established MAAR of 18%:
For CAT 336 GC:
???????? = $400,000 ? (??/??, 18%, 5) + $61,055.80 ? $200,000 ? (??/??, 18%, 5)
???????? = $400,000 ? (0.3198) + $61,055.80 ? $200,000 ? (0.1398)
???????? = $??????, ??????. ????
For John Deere 470 LC:
???????? = $435,000 ? (??/??, 18%, 5) + $69,938.05 ? $250,000 ? (??/??, 18%, 5)
???????? = $435,000 ? (0.3199) + $69,938.05 ? $250,000 ? (0.1398)
???????? = $??????, ??????. ????
11
4. Recommendation
4.1.
Economic Recommendation
Below is a summary table with the analyzes of 2 and 5 years:
Table 9. Summary of analysis of two and five years
Two Years
Five Years
Present Worth
CAT 336 GC
John Deere 470 LC
$
774,149.94 $
863,580.37
$
503,501.49 $
544,421.28
Annual Cash Flow
CAT 336 GC
John Deere 470 LC
$
316,535.80 $
347,772.55
$
161,015.80 $
174,144.55
Source. Own Authorship
From table 9 under all scenarios, the CAT 336 GC excavator is the most economical for
the company. It should be noted that the John Deere 470 LC excavator has a higher power
than recommended, but for economic purposes it is recommended to buy the CAT brand
excavator.
4.2.
Environmental Recommendation
The construction sector is one of the great emitters of CO2 to the atmosphere, so it is
vital to develop technologies or emissions to offset the damage caused. It is recommended
that the company perform proper maintenance on the excavators to keep the engine in
optimum working condition and thus reduce the emissions it produces. On the other hand,
it is also recommended to reduce emissions by the company by applying different
techniques such as the purchase of forests for their preservation.
12
5. References
Arrieta, E. (2018, November 14). Costa Rica es el tercer país con mayor densidad
vehicular de Latinoamérica. Retrieved May 1, 2020, from
https://www.larepublica.net/noticia/costa-rica-es-el-tercer-pais-con-mayordensidad-vehicular-de-latinoamerica
CAT. (n.d.). Cat | 336 GC Hydraulic Excavator | Caterpillar. Retrieved May 1, 2020, from
https://www.cat.com/en_US/products/new/equipment/excavators/largeexcavators/134294305449.html
Cummins Filtration. (n.d.). Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Q&A. Retrieved May 1, 2020,
from https://www.cumminsfiltration.com/sites/default/files/MB10033.pdf
John Deere. (n.d.). John Deere. Retrieved May 1, 2020, from
https://www.deere.com/en/excavators/large-excavators/470g-excavator/
SECSA. (2018, May 15). Consumo de combustible por hora en excavadoras y maquinaria
pesada. Retrieved May 1, 2020, from http://ventamaquinaria.mx/consumocombustible-hora-excavadoras-maquinaria-pesada/
Widman International SRL. (n.d.). Costo de mantenimiento de equipo pesado. Retrieved
May 1, 2020, from https://www.widman.biz/mantenimiento/pesado.php
13

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