Saudi Electronic University Currency Depreciation Discussion


In a critical essay, analyze how currency depreciation stimulates exports. Evaluate the three major approaches to analyzing the economic impact of currency depreciation: the elasticities approach, the absorption approach, and the monetary approach. Compare and contrast the three approaches and provide examples that distinguish them from each other.

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writing and citing in APA
Branching Paths: A Novel Teacher Evaluation Model for Faculty Development
James P. Bavis and Ahn G. Nu
Department of English, Purdue University
The paper’s title should be
centered, bold, and written
in title case. It should be
three or four lines below
the top margin of the page.
In this sample paper, we’ve
put three blank lines above
the title.
ENGL 101: Course Name
Dr. Richard Teeth
Jan. 30, 2020
Authors’ names appear two
lines below the title. They
should be written as
First name, middle initial(s),
last name.
Authors’ affiliations follow
immediately after their
names. For student papers,
these should usually be the
department containing the
course for which the paper
is being written.
Student papers do not contain an
author’s note.
Follow authors’ affiliations
with the number and name
of the course, the
instructor’s name and title,
and the assignment’s due
Note again that no
running head appears on
student papers.
The word “Abstract” should be
centered and bolded at the top
of the page.
Note that the page
number continues on the
pages that follow the title.
The main
A large body of assessment literature suggests that students’ evaluations of their teachers
paragraph of
the abstract
(SETs) can fail to measure the construct of teaching in a variety of contexts. This can
should not be
compromise faculty development efforts that rely on information from SETs. The disconnect
between SET results and faculty development efforts is exacerbated in educational contexts
By standard
that demand particular teaching skills that SETs do not value in proportion to their local
abstracts do
importance (or do not measure at all). This paper responds to these challenges by proposing an not contain
citations of
other works.
instrument for the assessment of teaching that allows institutional stakeholders to define the
If you need to
refer to
teaching construct in a way they determine to suit the local context. The main innovation of this another work
in the
instrument relative to traditional SETs is that it employs a branching “tree” structure populated
by binary-choice items based on the Empirically derived, Binary-choice, Boundary-definition
the authors in
the text can
(EBB) scale developed by Turner and Upshur for ESL writing assessment. The paper argues
often suffice.
Note also
that this structure can allow stakeholders to define the teaching construct by changing the order that some
and sensitivity of the nodes in the tree of possible outcomes, each of which corresponds to a
may allow for
specific teaching skill. The paper concludes by outlining a pilot study that will examine the
citations in
the abstract.
differences between the proposed EBB instrument and a traditional SET employing series of
multiple-choice questions (MCQs) that correspond to Likert scale values.
Keywords: college teaching, student evaluations of teaching, scale development, EBB
scale, pedagogies, educational assessment, faculty development
An abstract quickly
summarizes the main
points of the paper that
follows it. The APA 7
manual does not give
explicit directions for how
long abstracts should be,
but it does note that most
abstracts do not exceed
250 words (p. 38). It also
notes that professional
publishers (like academic
journals) may have a
variety of rules for
abstracts, and that writers
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Follow the abstract with a
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the italics and the colon). Follow
this with a list of keywords
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Note: Past this point, the student
paper and professional papers are
virtually identical, besides the
absence of a running head in the
student paper.
The paper’s title is bolded and centered
Here, we’ve
above the first body paragraph. There
borrowed a
should be no “Introduction” header.
quote from
an external
source, so
Branching Paths: A Novel Teacher Evaluation Model for Faculty Development
we need to
provide the
According to Theall (2017), “Faculty evaluation and development cannot be considered
location of
the quote in
separately … evaluation without development is punitive, and development without evaluation is
the document
(in this case,
guesswork” (p. 91). As the practices that constitute modern programmatic faculty development
the page
number) in
have evolved from their humble beginnings to become a commonplace feature of university life
(Lewis, 1996), a variety of tactics to evaluate the proficiency of teaching faculty for development
By contrast,
here, we’ve
purposes have likewise become commonplace. These include measures as diverse as peer
observations, the development of teaching portfolios, and student evaluations.
an idea from
the external
One such measure, the student evaluation of teacher (SET), has been virtually
source. Thus,
no location or
page number ubiquitous since at least the 1990s (Wilson, 1998). Though records of SET-like instruments can
is required.
be traced to work at Purdue University in the 1920s (Remmers & Brandenburg, 1927), most
modern histories of faculty development suggest that their rise to widespread popularity went
hand-in-hand with the birth of modern faculty development programs in the 1970s, when
universities began to adopt them in response to student protest movements criticizing
mainstream university curricula and approaches to instruction (Gaff & Simpson, 1994; Lewis,
1996; McKeachie, 1996). By the mid-2000s, researchers had begun to characterize SETs in
terms like “…the predominant measure of university teacher performance […] worldwide”
Spell out
the first time
you use
them, except
in cases
where the
are very wellknown (e.g.,
For sources
with two
authors, use
(&) between
the authors’
names rather
than the word
(Pounder, 2007, p. 178). Today, SETs play an important role in teacher assessment and faculty When listing
development at most universities (Davis, 2009). Recent SET research practically takes the
presence of some form of this assessment on most campuses as a given. Spooren et al.
(2017), for instance, merely note that that SETs can be found at “almost every institution of
higher education throughout the world” (p. 130). Similarly, Darwin (2012) refers to teacher
evaluation as an established orthodoxy, labeling it a “venerated,” “axiomatic” institutional
practice (p. 733).
Moreover, SETs do not only help universities direct their faculty development efforts.
They have also come to occupy a place of considerable institutional importance for their role in
citations in
the same
list them
and separate
them with
Here, we’ve
made an
indirect or
citation (i.e.,
we’ve cited a
source that
we found
cited in a
source). Use
the phrase
“as cited in”
in the
to indicate
that the firstlisted source
referenced in
the secondlisted one.
Include an
entry in the
reference list
only for the
(Pounder, in
this case).
personnel considerations, informing important decisions like hiring, firing, tenure, and
promotion. Seldin (1993, as cited in Pounder, 2007) finds that 86% of higher educational
institutions use SETs as important factors in personnel decisions. A 1991 survey of department
chairs found 97% used student evaluations to assess teaching performance (US Department of
Education). Since the mid-late 1990s, a general trend towards comprehensive methods of
teacher evaluation that include multiple forms of assessment has been observed
(Berk, 2005). However, recent research suggests the usage of SETs in personnel decisions is
still overwhelmingly common, though hard percentages are hard to come by, perhaps owing to
Here, we’ve
cited a
source that
does not
have a
author. The
g reference
list entry
would begin
with “US
the multifaceted nature of these decisions (Boring et al., 2017; Galbraith et al., 2012). In certain
Sources with
three authors
or more are
instructors. Particularly as public schools have experienced pressure in recent decades to adopt cited via the
neoliberal, market-based approaches to self-assessment and adopt a student-as-consumer
followed by
mindset (Darwin, 2012; Marginson, 2009), information from evaluations can even feature in
the Latin
phrase “et
department- or school-wide funding decisions (see, for instance, the Obama Administration’s
al.” Note that
Race to the Top initiative, which awarded grants to K-12 institutions that adopted value-added
comes after
“al,” rather
models for teacher evaluation).
than “et.”
contexts, student evaluations can also have ramifications beyond the level of individual
However, while SETs play a crucial role in faulty development and personnel decisions
for many education institutions, current approaches to SET administration are not as well-suited
to these purposes as they could be. This paper argues that a formative, empirical approach to
teacher evaluation developed in response to the demands of the local context is better-suited
for helping institutions improve their teachers. It proposes the Heavilon Evaluation of Teacher,
or HET, a new teacher assessment instrument that can strengthen current approaches to
faculty development by making them more responsive to teachers’ local contexts. It also
proposes a pilot study that will clarify the differences between this new instrument and the
Introductory Composition at Purdue (ICaP) SET, a more traditional instrument used for similar
purposes. The results of this study will direct future efforts to refine the proposed instrument.
Note: For the sake of brevity, the next page of the original paper was cut
from this sample document.
Methods section, which follows, will propose a pilot study that compares the results of the
proposed instrument to the results of a traditional SET (and will also provide necessary
background information on both of these evaluations). The paper will conclude with a discussion
of how the results of the pilot study will inform future iterations of the proposed instrument and,
more broadly, how universities should argue for local development of assessments.
Literature Review
Effective Teaching: A Contextual Construct
Second-level headings are flush left, bolded, and
written in title case.
Third level headings are flush left, bolded, written in
title case, and italicized.
The validity of the instrument this paper proposes is contingent on the idea that it is
possible to systematically measure a teacher’s ability to teach. Indeed, the same could be said
for virtually all teacher evaluations. Yet despite the exceeding commonness of SETs and the
faculty development programs that depend on their input, there is little scholarly consensus on
precisely what constitutes “good” or “effective” teaching. It would be impossible to review the
entire history of the debate surrounding teaching effectiveness, owing to its sheer scope—such
a summary might need to begin with, for instance, Cicero and Quintilian. However, a cursory
overview of important recent developments (particularly those revealed in meta-analyses of
empirical studies of teaching) can help situate the instrument this paper proposes in relevant
academic conversations.
Fourth-level headings are bolded and written in title case. They are
also indented and written in-line with the following paragraph.
Meta-analysis 1. One core assumption that undergirds many of these conversations is
the notion that good teaching has effects that can be observed in terms of student achievement. decimal
fractions, put
A meta-analysis of 167 empirical studies that investigated the effects of various teaching factors a zero in
front of the
decimal if the
on student achievement (Kyriakides et al., 2013) supported the effectiveness of a set of
quantity is
teaching factors that the authors group together under the label of the “dynamic model” of
that can
exceed one
teaching. Seven of the eight factors (Orientation, Structuring, Modeling, Questioning,
(like the
number of
Assessment, Time Management, and Classroom as Learning Environment) corresponded to
moderate average effect sizes (of between 0.34–0.41 standard deviations) in measures of
here). Do not
put a zero if
the quantity
exceed one
(e.g., if the
number is a
student achievement. The eighth factor, Application (defined as seatwork and small-group tasks
oriented toward practice of course concepts), corresponded to only a small yet still significant
effect size of 0.18. The lack of any single decisive factor in the meta-analysis supports the idea
that effective teaching is likely a multivariate construct. However, the authors also note the
context-dependent nature of effective teaching. Application, the least-important teaching factor
overall, proved more important in studies examining young students (p. 148). Modeling, by
contrast, was especially important for older students.
Meta-analysis 2. A different meta-analysis that argues for the importance of factors like
clarity and setting challenging goals (Hattie, 2009) nevertheless also finds that the effect sizes
of various teaching factors can be highly context-dependent. For example, effect sizes for
homework range from 0.15 (a small effect) to 0.64 (a moderately large effect) based on the level
of education examined. Similar ranges are observed for differences in academic subject (e.g.,
math vs. English) and student ability level. As Snook et al. (2009) note in their critical response
to Hattie, while it is possible to produce a figure for the average effect size of a particular
teaching factor, such averages obscure the importance of context.
Meta-analysis 3. A final meta-analysis (Seidel & Shavelson, 2007) found generally
small average effect sizes for most teaching factors—organization and academic domainspecific learning activities showed the biggest cognitive effects (0.33 and 0.25, respectively).
Here, again, however, effectiveness varied considerably due to contextual factors like domain of
study and level of education in ways that average effect sizes do not indicate.
These pieces of evidence suggest that there are multiple teaching factors that produce
measurable gains in student achievement and that the relative importance of individual factors
can be highly dependent on contextual factors like student identity. This is in line with a welldocumented phenomenon in educational research that complicates attempts to measure
teaching effectiveness purely in terms of student achievement. This is that “the largest source of
variation in student learning is attributable to differences in what students bring to school – their
abilities and attitudes, and family and community” (McKenzie et al., 2005, p. 2). Student
achievement varies greatly due to non-teacher factors like socio-economic status and home life
(Snook et al., 2009). This means that, even to the extent that it is possible to observe the
effectiveness of certain teaching behaviors in terms of student achievement, it is difficult to set
generalizable benchmarks or standards for student achievement. Thus is it also difficult to make
true apples-to-apples comparisons about teaching effectiveness between different educational
To list a few
sources as
examples of
constitutes highly effective teaching in one context may not in another. This difficulty has
a larger body
of work, you
featured in criticism of certain meta-analyses that have purported to make generalizable claims can use the
word “see” in
about what teaching factors produce the biggest effects (Hattie, 2009). A variety of other
commentators have also made similar claims about the importance of contextual factors in
as we’ve
done here.
contexts: due to vast differences between different kinds of students, a notion of what
teaching effectiveness for decades (see, e.g., Bloom et al., 1956; Cashin, 1990; Theall, 2017).
The studies described above mainly measure teaching effectiveness in terms of
academic achievement. It should certainly be noted that these quantifiable measures are not
generally regarded as the only outcomes of effective teaching worth pursuing. Qualitative
outcomes like increased affinity for learning and greater sense of self-efficacy are also important
learning goals. Here, also, local context plays a large role.
SETs: Imperfect Measures of Teaching
As noted in this paper’s introduction, SETs are commonly used to assess teaching
performance and inform faculty development efforts. Typically, these take the form of an end-ofterm summative evaluation comprised of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) that allow students
to rate statements about their teachers on Likert scales. These are often accompanied with
short-answer responses which may or may not be optional.
SETs serve important institutional purposes. While commentators have noted that there
are crucial aspects of instruction that students are not equipped to judge (Benton & Young,
2018), SETs nevertheless give students a rare institutional voice. They represent an opportunity
to offer anonymous feedback on their teaching experience and potentially address what they
deem to be their teacher’s successes or failures. Students are also uniquely positioned to offer
meaningful feedback on an instructors’ teaching because they typically have much more
extensive firsthand experience of it than any other educational stakeholder. Even peer
observers only witness a small fraction of the instructional sessions during a given semester.
Students with perfect attendance, by contrast, witness all of them. Thus, in a certain sense, a
student can theoretically assess a teacher’s ability more authoritatively than even peer mentors
While historical attempts to validate SETs have produced mixed results, some studies
have demonstrated their promise. Howard (1985), for instance, finds that SET are significantly
more predictive of teaching effectiveness than self-report, peer, and trained-observer
assessments. A review of several decades of literature on teaching evaluations (Watchel, 1998)
found that a majority of researchers believe SETs to be generally valid and reliable, despite
occasional misgivings. This review notes that even scholars who support SETs frequently argue
that they alone cannot direct efforts to improve teaching and that multiple avenues of feedback
are necessary (L’hommedieu et al., 1990; Seldin, 1993).
Finally, SETs also serve purposes secondary to the ostensible goal of improving
instruction that nonetheless matter. They can be used to bolster faculty CVs and assign
departmental awards, for instance. SETs can also provide valuable information unrelated to
teaching. It would be hard to argue that it not is useful for a teacher to learn, for example, that a
student finds the class unbearably boring, or that a student finds the teacher’s personality so
unpleasant as to hinder her learning. In short, there is real value in understanding students’
affective experience of a particular class, even in cases when that value does not necessarily
lend itself to firm conclusions about the teacher’s professional abilities.
However, a wealth of scholarly research has demonstrated that SETs are prone to fail in
certain contexts. A common criticism is that SETs can frequently be confounded by factors
external to the teaching construct. The best introduction to the research that serves as the basis
for this claim is probably Neath (1996), who performs something of a meta-analysis by
presenting these external confounds in the form of twenty sarcastic suggestions to teaching
faculty. Among these are the instructions to “grade leniently,” “administer ratings before tests”
(p. 1365), and “not teach required courses” (#11) (p. 1367). Most of Neath’s advice reflects an
overriding observation that teaching evaluations tend to document students’ affective feelings
toward a class, rather than their teachers’ abilities, even when the evaluations explicitly ask
students to judge the latter.
Beyond Neath, much of the available research paints a similar picture. For example, a
study of over 30,000 economics students concluded that “the poorer the student considered his
teacher to be [on an SET], the more economics he understood” (Attiyeh & Lumsden, 1972). A
1998 meta-analysis argued that “there is no evidence that the use of teacher ratings improves
learning in the long run” (Armstrong, 1998, p. 1223). A 2010 National Bureau of Economic
Research study found that high SET scores for a course’s instructor correlated with “high
contemporaneous course achievement,” but “low follow-on achievement” (in other words, the
students would tend to do well in the course, but poor in future courses in the same field of
study. Others observing this effect have suggested SETs reward a pandering, “soft-ball”
teaching style in the initial course (Carrell & West, 2010). More recent research suggests that
course topic can have a significant effect on SET scores as well: teachers of “quantitative
courses” (i.e., math-focused classes) tend to receive lower evaluations from students than their
humanities peers (Uttl & Smibert, 2017).
Several modern SET studies have also demonstrated bias on the basis of gender
(Anderson & Miller, 1997; Basow, 1995), physical appearance/sexiness (Ambady & Rosenthal,
1993), and other identity markers that do not affect teaching quality. Gender, in particular, has
attracted significant attention. One recent study examined two online classes: one in which
instructors identified themselves to students as male, and another in which they identified as
This citation
from different
locations in
the original
source. Each
quotation is
followed by
page number.
female (regardless of the instructor’s actual gender) (Macnell et al., 2015). The classes were
identical in structure and content, and the instructors’ true identities were concealed from
students. The study found that students rated the male identity higher on average. However, a
few studies have demonstrated the reverse of the gender bias mentioned above (that is, women
received higher scores) (Bachen et al., 1999) while others have registered no gender bias one
way or another (Centra & Gaubatz, 2000).
The goal of presenting these criticisms is not necessarily to diminish the institutional
importance of SETs. Of course, insofar as institutions value the instruction of their students, it is
important that those students have some say in the content and character of that instruction.
Rather, the goal here is simply to demonstrate that using SETs for faculty development
purposes—much less for personnel decisions—can present problems. It is also to make the
case that, despite the abundance of literature on SETs, there is still plenty of room for scholarly
attempts to make these instruments more useful.
Empirical Scales and Locally-Relevant Evaluation
One way to ensure that teaching assessments are more responsive to the demands of
teachers’ local contexts is to develop those assessments locally, ideally via a process that
involves the input of a variety of local stakeholders. Here, writing assessment literature offers a
promising path forward: empirical scale development, the process of structuring and calibrating
instruments in response to local input and data (e.g., in the context of writing assessment,
student writing samples and performance information). This practice contrasts, for instance, with
deductive approaches to scale development that attempt to represent predetermined theoretical
constructs so that results can be generalized.
Supporters of the empirical process argue that empirical scales have several
advantages. They are frequently posited as potential solutions to well-documented reliability and
validity issues that can occur with theoretical or intuitive scale development (Brindley, 1998;
Turner & Upshur, 1995, 2002). Empirical scales can also help researchers avoid issues caused
longer than
40 words
should be
formatted as
Indent the
passage half
an inch and
present the
marks. Any
should follow
mark. If the
author and/
or date are
in the text,
as they are
here, place
them in the
that follows
the quotation
along with
the page
by subjective or vaguely-worded standards in other kinds of scales (Brindley, 1998) because
they require buy-in from local stakeholders who must agree on these standards based on
their understanding of the local context. Fulcher et al. (2011) note the following, for instance:
Measurement-driven scales suffer from descriptional inadequacy. They are not sensitive
to the communicative context or the interactional complexities of language use. The level
of abstraction is too great, creating a gulf between the score and its meaning. Only with
a richer description of contextually based performance, can we strengthen the meaning
of the score, and hence the validity of score-based inferences. (pp. 8–9)
There is also some evidence that the branching structure of the EBB scale specifically
can allow for more reliable and valid assessments, even if it is typically easier to calibrate and
use conventional scales (Hirai & Koizumi, 2013). Finally, scholars have also argued that
theory-based approaches to scale development do not always result in instruments that
realistically capture ordinary classroom situations (Knoch, 2007, 2009).
The most prevalent criticism of empirical scale development in the literature is that the
local, contingent nature of empirical scales basically discards any notion of their results’
generalizability. Fulcher (2003), for instance, makes this basic criticism of the EBB scale even
as he subsequently argues that “the explicitness of the design methodology for EBBs is
impressive, and their usefulness in pedagogic settings is attractive” (p. 107). In the context of
this particular paper’s aims, there is also the fact that the literature supporting empirical scale
development originates in the field of writing assessment, rather than teaching assessment.
Moreover, there is little extant research into the applications of empirical scale development for
the latter purpose. Thus, there is no guarantee that the benefits of empirical development
approaches can be realized in the realm of teaching assessment. There is also no guarantee
that they cannot. In taking a tentative step towards a better understanding of how these
assessment schema function in a new context, then, the study described in the next section
When citing
sources from
the same
simply list the
then list the
years of the
separated by
asks whether the principles that guide some of the most promising practices for assessing
students cannot be put to productive use in assessing teachers.
Materials and Methods
This section proposes a pilot study that will compare the ICaP SET to the Heavilon
Evaluation of Teacher (HET), an instrument designed to combat the statistical ceiling effect
described above. In this section, the format and composition of the HET is described, with
special attention paid to its branching scale design. Following this, the procedure for the study is
outlined, and planned interpretations of the data are discussed.
The Purdue ICaP SET
The SET employed by Introductory Composition at Purdue (ICaP) program as of
January 2019 serves as an example of many of the prevailing trends in current SET
administration. The evaluation is administered digitally: ICaP students receive an invitation to
complete the evaluation via email near the end of the semester, and must complete it before
finals week (i.e., the week that follows the normal sixteen-week term) for their responses to be
counted. The evaluation is entirely optional: teachers may not require their students to complete
it, nor may they offer incentives like extra credit as motivation. However, some instructors opt to
devote a small amount of in-class time for the evaluations. In these cases, it is common practice
for instructors to leave the room so as not to coerce high scores.
The ICaP SET mostly takes the form of a simple multiple-choice survey. Thirty-four
MCQs appear on the survey. Of these, the first four relate to demographics: students must
indicate their year of instruction, their expected grade, their area of study, and whether they are
taking the course as a requirement or as an elective. Following these are two questions related
to the overall quality of the course and the instructor (students must rate each from “very poor”
to “excellent” on a five-point scale). These are “university core” questions that must appear on
every SET administered at Purdue, regardless of school, major, or course. The Students are
Italicize the
anchors of
scales or
responses to
rather than
them in
marks. Do
not italicize
numbers if
the scale
also invited to respond to two short-answer prompts: “What specific suggestions do you have for
improving the course or the way it is taught?” and “what is something that the professor does
well?” Responses to these questions are optional.
The remainder of the MCQs (thirty in total) are chosen from a list of 646 possible
questions provided by the Purdue Instructor Course Evaluation Service (PICES) by department
administrators. Each of these PICES questions requires students to respond to a statement
about the course on a five-point Likert scale. Likert scales are simple scales used to indicate
degrees of agreement. In the case of the ICaP SET, students must indicate whether they
strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree, or are undecided. These thirty Likert scale
questions assess a wide variety of the course and instructor’s qualities. Examples include “My
instructor seems well-prepared for class,” “This course helps me analyze my own and other
students’ writing,” and “When I have a question or comment I know it will be respected,” for
One important consequence of the ICaP SET within the Purdue English department is
the Excellence in Teaching Award (which, prior to Fall 2018, was named the Quintilian or,
colloquially, “Q” Award). This is a symbolic prize given every semester to graduate instructors
who score highly on their evaluations. According to the ICaP site, “ICaP instructors whose
teaching evaluations achieve a certain threshold earn [the award], recognizing the top 10% of
teaching evaluations at Purdue.” While this description is misleading—the award actually goes
to instructors whose SET scores rank in the top decile in the range of possible outcomes, but
not necessarily ones who scored better than 90% of other instructors—the award nevertheless
provides an opportunity for departmental instructors to distinguish their CVs and teaching
Insofar as it is distributed digitally, it is composed of MCQs (plus a few short-answer
responses), and it is intended as end-of-term summative assessment, the ICaP SET embodies
the current prevailing trends in university-level SET administration. In this pilot study, it serves
as a stan