Question 2 Which of the following scenarios best characterizes the…

QuestionAnswered step-by-stepQuestion 2 Which of the following scenarios best characterizes the… Question 2 Which of the following scenarios best characterizes the concept of obedience? Question 2 options:  Janet is making several photocopies on the library copy machine. Bill, Janet’s classmate, shows up and asks if he can make just one copy. Janet says, “Sure, no problem.”   Bob is socializing at a party and does not feel like drinking alcohol. But Bob notices that almost everyone else at the party is drinking heavily, so he ends up drinking beer as well.   David is pouring himself a cup of coffee when his boss shows up and says, “Pour me a cup.” David pours the cup of coffee and gives it to his boss.   Howard is eating dinner at his professor’s house with several other classmates. His professor asks him if he likes sushi. Howard does not, but he still says, “Yes, I sure do!”  Question 3  The main difference between compliance and obedience is that obedience occurs in response to Question 3 options:  a more powerful person or group.   a request.   a personal belief.   imagined pressure from others.  Question 4 Normative social influence often has a greater impact on ________ than on________. Question 4 options:  public compliance; private acceptance   private acceptance; public compliance   private acceptance; internalization   internalization; private acceptance  Question 5 John is a mathematics graduate student, whereas Lisa is a local celebrity. Although both John and Lisa are likely to have some increased ability to elicit conformity from others, Lisa is more likely to influence conformity through Question 5 options:  informational social influence.   internalization.   reciprocal concessions.   normative social influence.  Question 6 ________ is the first step in the foot-in-the-door technique. Question 6 options:  Giving people a small gift   Giving people a large gift   Making a small request   Making a large request  Question 7 Imagine that you are walking inside the mall and you come across a person asking for signatures on a petition for a cause that you support. The person asks if you would be willing to sign the document, to which you agree, but then asks if you would be willing to volunteer your time to collect signatures as well, and you find yourself agreeing again. What technique did the person use to get you to agree to both requests? Question 7 options:  foot-in-the-door   norm of reciprocity   door-in-the-face   negative state relief  Question 8 In the original Milgram experiment (1965), the experimenter asked participants to shock someone else whenever that person made a mistake on a learning task. The results of this experiment showed that people Question 8 options:  learned better when they were punished.   did not experience distress when other people were in pain.   were unwilling to advance science if it meant hurting someone else.   were willing to inflict pain on strangers.  Question 9 Hideous crimes against humanity include the Holocaust in Nazi Germany, the “ethnic cleansing” in Bosnia, and the tribal massacres in Rwanda. According to the textbook, there are two different ways of explaining such crimes. One of these explanations, the normalist thesis, holds that Question 9 options:  only highly sadistic, desperate, or ethnocentric people harm others.   under certain circumstances, almost anyone has the capacity to harm others.   evolutionary pressures favored traits that involved a greater willingness to harm others.   the media (television, movies, video games) have made violence commonplace.  Question 10  Cyberbullying has become more prevalent with increasing technological advances in our society. What does Milgram’s obedience study tell us about why online communication can become increasingly harmful? Question 10 options:  Online communication is indirect and remote, so it is easier to harm others.   Online social media platforms often promote bullying practices of their users.   Online communication makes people feel more responsibility for their actions.   Online platforms encourage face-to-face interactions, which are more likely to be aggressive.  Question 11 If the need to belong is universal, then this need should occur in Question 11 options:  relationships with parents but not with friends.   humans but not animals.   individualistic cultures but not collectivist cultures.   cultures around the world.  Question 12 A person’s attachment style Question 12 options:  fluctuates in accordance with momentary changes in moods and desires.   is shaped by how the child is treated during infancy and early childhood.   is genetically inherited (as opposed to environmentally determined).   is likely to change from one style to another over the life span.  Question 13 The adult attachment style characterized by excessive attempts to get closer to others and frequent worry about relationships is Question 13 options:  secure.   anxious-ambivalent.   avoidant.   communal.  Question 14  Artie and his girlfriend Robyn just broke up. Robyn calls her best friend to talk about it. She says, “Artie is the kind of guy who never seemed to feel comfortable with intimacy or being in love. He just did not seem to trust, need, or depend on me. In fact, he would even tell me that I loved him more than I should, and this made him nervous.” According to this description, Artie’s attachment style is best characterized as Question 14 options:  anxious-ambivalent.   secure.   avoidant.   dismissive.  Question 15 The term ________ distance refers to the idea that a building’s layout can encourage contact between some people but discourage contact between other people. Question 15 options:  functional   objective   social   serviceable  Question 16 The mere exposure effect can be explained in part by Question 16 options:  reciprocity.   operant learning.   equity.   classical conditioning.  Question 17  Recall that Festinger and his colleagues (1950) conducted research at a university housing project called Westgate West. Among other things, they examined friendship formation among apartment residents. The results showed that the residents living near the stairwells formed twice as many friendships with upstairs neighbors as those living in the middle apartments, which were further from the stairs. These results illustrate the impact of ________ on friendship formation. Question 17 options:  physical distance   similarity   functional distance   sociometric distance  Question 18  Joseph is energetic and fun loving and craves attention from other people. He also wants to find a girlfriend. According to social psychological research, Joseph is most likely to be attracted to a woman who is Question 18 options:  conscientious.   intellectual.   shy.   extraverted.  Question 19  Jerome heard that Liza has a great sense of humor. On meeting her for the first time, Jerome encourages Liza to share jokes she has heard and to tell him about comedy films she has seen. Although Liza does not see herself as especially funny, she obliges Jerome, and he concludes that what he had heard about Liza is true. Which of the following phenomena is most closely reflected in the exchange between Jerome and Liza? Question 19 options:  the mere exposure effect   sociometry   proximity   self-fulfilling prophecy  Question 20  According to the textbook, there are three main predictors of attraction. Which of the following is NOT one of these three predictors? Question 20 options:  similarity   physical attractiveness   attachment   proximity  Question 21  Kareem tends to idealize his husband, which means that he Question 21 options:  underestimates his husband’s virtues.   accurately perceives his husband’s virtues and faults.   overestimates his husband’s virtues and underestimates his faults.   overestimates his husband’s virtues and accurately perceives his faults.  Question 22  Stefani and Joseph, a married couple, are displaying several of the four harmful relationship behaviors identified by Gottman and Levenson (1983, 1992, 1999). Which of these behaviors is the strongest predictor of a future divorce between Stefani and Joseph? Question 22 options:  contempt   criticism   stonewalling   defensiveness  Question 23  The ________ test has been shown to reveal unconscious prejudices of people who say they advocate universal equality for all groups. Question 23 options:  implicit association   draw-a-person   internal attitudes   true beliefs  Question 24Recall that Glick and Fiske (2001a, 2001b) studied positive and negative stereotypes about women in 19 different countries. They found that Question 24 options:  benevolent sexism cannot coexist with hostile sexism.   negative stereotypes have troublesome consequences, but positive stereotypes do not.   positive stereotypes can have troublesome consequences.   ambivalent sexist attitudes are easy for people to change.  Question 25 Stereotypes are Question 25 options:  unspoken feelings of animosity toward certain groups.   negative behaviors directed toward members of particular groups.   negative affective responses toward certain groups.   generalizations about groups that are often applied to individual group members.  Question 26 Modern racism in the United States is characterized by Question 26 options:  prejudice directed at other racial groups that coexists alongside a rejection of explicitly racist beliefs.   possessing explicitly racist beliefs that encourage outgroup favoritism.   competition between racial groups that results from scarce resources.   discrimination against majority group members.  Question 27 Bill’s belief that all African-Americans are good at sports exemplifies ________. Bill’s refusal to hire African-Americans exemplifies ________. Question 27 options:  discrimination; ethnocentrism   prejudice; stereotyping   stereotyping; discrimination   racism; modern racism  Question 28 Recall that Sherif and his colleagues (1961) conducted the Robbers Cave experiment, which generated conflict between two groups of boys. This study showed that Question 28 options:  a superordinate goal reduced intergroup conflict.   outgroup favoritism occurred.   simple noncompetitive contact reduced intergroup conflict.   ingroup cohesion is unlikely to occur when resources are scarce.  Question 29 Mr. Biggs sets up his fifth grade classroom so that students need to teach each other and cooperate in order to do well. Mr. Biggs is applying Question 29 options:  the subcategorization procedure.   intergroup classroom theory.   the minimal group paradigm.   the jigsaw classroom technique.  Question 30 According social identity theory, Jasson is more likely to stereotype others and express prejudice when Question 30 options:  he receives praise from outgroup members.   his own self-esteem is threatened.   he receives praise from ingroup members.   he tries hard not to use stereotypes to judge others.  Question 31 Which of the following scenarios illustrates “basking in reflected glory”? Question 31 options:  feeling happy when you receive an A on your paper   congratulating a friend on a job well done   exaggerating how much effort you put into a group project   wearing your school’s T-shirt whenever its football team wins  Question 32 Basking in reflected glory refers to a tendency to Question 32 options:  overestimate our own contributions to a group effort.   take pride in the accomplishments of those with whom we are associated.   mistakenly believe that we are responsible for someone else’s accomplishments.   underestimate our own contributions to a group effort.  Question 33 Research suggests that stereotyping can sometimes be ________ because it can ________ our social environment. Question 33 options:  justified; increase our attention to the details of   useful; decrease the time and effort needed to deal with   destructive; lead us to introspect too much about   harmful; decrease the predictability of  Question 34 Research indicates that automatic, negative associations with members of various stigmatized groups appear to be more easily activated among ________ than among ________. Question 34 options:  high-school educated people; college-educated people   children; adults   prejudiced individuals; nonprejudiced individuals   men; women  Question 35 In one study, white participants had to decide as quickly as possible whether an object depicted in a photograph was a handgun or a hand tool. Each photograph was immediately preceded by a picture of either a black face or a white face. The results showed that participants were faster to identify the Question 35 options:  handgun when it was preceded by a black face.   handgun when it was preceded by a white face.   hand tool when it was preceded by a white face.   handgun when it was preceded by a black face, and a hand tool when it was preceded by a white face.  Question 36 Why do people tend to see faces of their own race as more distinguishable and easier to recognize (i.e., own-race identification bias)? Question 36 options:  There is a deeper level of cognitive processing for individual characteristics.   Racial characteristics are processed automatically.   There is a deeper level of cognitive processing concerning racial characteristics.   This bias occurs because faces of other races all tend to look alike.  Question 37 Research on stereotype threat has shown that female students performed Question 37 options:  better on a verbal test when they took it in the presence of male students.   worse on a math test when they were told beforehand that men tend to score higher.   worse on a verbal test when they had to indicate their gender on a demographic questionnaire.   better on a math test when they were threatened with punishment for doing poorly.  Question 38 Members of stigmatized groups often cannot tell whether many of their experiences have the same origins as those of nonstigmatized groups or whether these experiences are the result of prejudice. Research on this attributional predicament in performance-based contexts has shown that Question 38 options:  black participants’ self-esteem was affected by negative feedback but not by positive feedback.   black participants were more likely to seek negative feedback than positive feedback.   black participants’ self-esteem was more strongly affected by both positive feedback and negative feedback, compared to white students.   black participants’ self-esteem was not affected by positive or negative feedback if they knew that their evaluators could see them.  Question 39 Recall that Steele and Aronson (1995) showed that black participants performed relatively poorly on a test when they were led to believe it was a particularly good measure of intellectual ability. This finding can be explained by Question 39 options:  illusory correlation.   attributional ambiguity.   stereotype threat.   paired distinctiveness.  Question 40 Which of the following scenarios best captures the definition of a group, as described in the textbook? Question 40 options:  people who stand together during an elevator ride   people who wait together in the same room for a job interview   people who decide how to help a stranded motorist   people who watch someone get stabbed while they are sitting on the same bus  Question 41 According to the textbook, which of the following statements is NOT among the reasons evolutionary psychologist believe that humans developed a psychological need to be with others and belong? Question 41 options:  Groups help in terms of protection from predators.   Groups increase the efficiency with which people can find and share food.   Groups allow people to socialize.   Groups increase protection from hostile aggressors.  Question 42 Zajonc and colleagues (1969) found that the mere presence of others tends to facilitate performance ________, but to hinder performance ________. Question 42 options:  on novel tasks; on well-learned tasks   on well-learned tasks; on novel tasks   among women; among men   among men; among women  Question 43 Research on social ________ suggests that performance ________when novel tasks are performed in the presence of others. Question 43 options:  facilitation; improves   facilitation; suffers   loafing; improves   loafing; suffers  Question 44 Research on decision making suggests that, compared with a single person, a group is more likely to generate the correct solution to a problem that Question 44 options:  has a precise, factual answer.   does not have a precise, factual answer.   requires logical reasoning.   requires considering diverse perspectives.  Question 45 With his roommates, Jason participates in a group discussion on the merits of gun control. Once the discussion is over, Jason finds that he and his roommates have all adopted similarly strong pro-gun control attitudes. This is an example of Question 45 options:  groupthink.   social loafing.   group polarization.   social facilitation.  Question 46  Groupthink can be very powerful in interdependent cultures, such as in Japan, where the drive toward group harmony is especially strong. Despite this tendency toward groupthink, Japanese companies tend to be highly effective. According to the textbook, what practice might help to explain this? Question 46 options:  Colleagues often engage in staged debates and someone plays “devil’s advocate.”   A CEO states his or her opinion and then asks the employees to engage in an open discussion.   CEOs meet individually with employees to discuss the relevant issues before a decision is made.   CEOs make decisions alone.  Question 47  Sally feels lost in a crowd at a rock concert and is experiencing deindividuation. This means that Sally is Question 47 options:  more self-aware, less concerned with others’ evaluations, and more inhibited.   less self-aware, more concerned with others’ evaluations, and less inhibited.   less self-aware, less concerned with others’ evaluations, and less inhibited.   more self-aware, more concerned with others’ evaluations, and less inhibited.  Question 48  ________ is to deindividuation as ________ is to self-awareness. Question 48 options:  Wearing a mask; seeing oneself in a mirror   Playing a game; solving a problem   Inhibition; self-control   Being photographed; wearing a name tag  Question 49  Aggression that is motivated by feelings of anger and hostility is called ________ aggression, whereas aggression that is motivated by a desire to gain status or to acquire wealth is called ________ aggression. Question 49 options:  reactive; relational   instrumental; hostile   hostile; instrumental   relational; reactive  Question 50Charlie frequently plays violent video games. Based on the research documented by Anderson and Bushman and their colleagues (2001, 2017), which of the following is NOT likely to be true for Charlie? Question 50 options:  Charlie is likely to become more aggressive.   Charlie is likely to have more aggressive thoughts.   Charlie is likely to behave in a more prosocial manner.   Charlie’s blood pressure and heart rate are likely to increase.  Question 51  Kendrick is angry after being insulted by a classmate. Which of the following behaviors is LEAST likely to reduce the chances that Kendrick will later behave aggressively toward his classmate? Question 51 options:  hitting a punching bag while keeping the image of the insulting classmate in mind   hitting a punching bag while keeping the image of a different (noninsulting) classmate in mind   viewing his feelings of anger from a distance   imagining that the situation is part of a movie or novel  Question 52  Which of the following statements is NOT among the evidence described by Nisbett and Cohen (1996) suggesting that a culture of honor exists in the southern United States? Question 52 options:  Southerners are more likely than northerners to respond with aggression when their honor is slighted.   Southerners are more likely than northerners to endorse pro-rape statements.   Southerners became angrier than northerners when insulted in a laboratory study.   There are more argument-related murders in the southern United States than in the northern United States.  Question 53 Gossip, forming alliances, and excluding others are all examples of ________ aggression. Question 53 options:  hostile   relational   gender-based   physical  Question 54  Misconceptions about opposing enemies fostered during times of war can lead to potentially problematic outcomes that in turn fuel the conflict further. One common outcome is ________, the belief that people fall into two opposing camps. Another outcome is  ________, which means that people attach little value to the offers of the opposition. Question 54 options:  reactive devaluation; the fundamental attribution error   polarization; reactive devaluation   reactive devaluation; polarization   polarization; the fundamental attribution error  Question 55 Daniel Batson has argued that there are three main motives for helping others. They are Question 55 options:  reciprocity, kin selection, and social rewards.   social rewards, personal distress, and empathic concern.   sympathy, reputational advantages, and reciprocity.   personal distress, sympathy, and empathic concern.  Question 56 According to Batson’s theory about the motives that produce altruistic action, only one motive is NOT selfish. That motive is Question 56 options:  affiliation.   personal distress.   empathic concern.   reciprocity.  Question 57 All the following victim characteristics are likely to increase helping EXCEPT Question 57 options:  bleeding.   screaming for help.   being similar to a potential helper.   unambiguous need.  Question 58  If you want to increase the odds that you will get help when you are in need, which of the following actions should you take? Question 58 options:  single out a specific person and ask him or her for help   move to a big city   do not explain your problem   remain quiet and calm  Question 59 The concept of altruism refers to Question 59 options:  behavior that enhances the survival of one’s own genes.   unselfish behavior that benefits others without regard to consequences for the self.   feelings of compassion toward a needy other.   an action intended to benefit both the self and someone else at the same time.  Question 60Diffusion of responsibility entail  being unaware of cultural norms that promote helping behavior.   overestimating one’s own responsibility for the welfare of others.   assuming that other people who are present during an emergency will provide help to a victim.   underestimating the harmfulness of a situation.  Social SciencePsychologyPSY 335Share Question

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