McMaster Role of Natural Resources in Stabilizing the Canadian Economy Discussion

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Fall 2021
ECON 4F03
Svetlana Demidova
Guidelines for:
I. Selection of Term Paper Topic (p. 1)
II. Selection of Scholarly Articles or Research Papers to be Reviewed (p.2-3)
III. Report 1 – Paper Proposal (p. 4-5).
Deadline: 6 pm (Toronto time), Friday, October 8th, 2021.
You should follow the guidelines provided in this document very carefully.
months of the course that you build the foundations of your term paper.
It is in the first
I. Selection of Term Paper Topic
Your individual paper will consist of a critical review of three articles or research papers that
use data and relatively advanced analytical methods to test economic hypotheses or answer
economic questions related to public policy.
You may consider a wide range of economic topics. While you can use course topics, you
cannot use course articles. You are welcome to use lists of references from course articles to find
related articles.
Canadian content is always welcome but policy issues from other economies, either developed or
transitional, are just as welcome.
Examples of Topics from Previous Years.
•
•
•
•
Analyzing the Effects of Improving Childcare Accessibility on Female Labour Force
Participation
Do Intellectual Property Rights Truly Promote Innovation and Economic Growth in
Developing Countries?
An Investigation into the Effects of Incentives on Academic Performance
An Investigation into the Causal Relationship Between Technological Advancement and
Wealth Inequality
The McMaster library staff prepared videos on many research related topics. You can find
those videos at
https://library.mcmaster.ca/research/how-library-stuff-works
There is one video on “How to choose an essay topic”
1
h t t p s : / / w w w . y o u t u b e . c o m / w a t c h ?
v=HjOZtHqb_q0&list=PLjB7x34VHLf5ooJegDE5Jmt4V7iE8tm50&index=23
II. Selection of Scholarly Articles or Research Papers to Review
II.1 General Guidelines
You are to review only academic research which generally appears in one of two forms:
i.
Articles published in refereed academic journals. To learn more about the refereeing
process watch
h t t p s : / / w w w . y o u t u b e . c o m / w a t c h ?
v=Z4JJbkpLPQI&index=18&list=PLjB7x34VHLf5ooJegDE5Jmt4V7iE8tm50
ii.
Research papers (sometimes also referred to as “working papers” or “discussion papers)
issued by well recognized university departments of economics, not-for-profit research
institutes (such as the Institute for Research on Public Policy in Montreal or the National
Bureau of Economic Research in the US), and government research organizations such as
Statistics Canada.
Unacceptable articles include but are not limited to the following:
i.
Articles in newspapers and magazines.
ii.
Articles by politicians, political parties, unions, business groups, or advocacy
organizations whose principal objective is not to “get the right answer” but to influence
public policy. Such papers constitute “advocacy research”, i.e., evidence favoring one’s
position is highlighted and evidence not favoring one’s position is ignored or minimized.
There is no intent to be unbiased. Academic research is inevitably biased, given that it is
authored by human beings, BUT the goal is to be as unbiased as possible.
iii. Most web-sites unless you are downloading a paper which classifies under one of the two
categories listed at the beginning of section II.1.
iv.
Publications which simply report data (employment levels or life expectancies) are not
research papers. Research papers attempt to answer some economic question.
v.
Very short research papers (referred to as “letters” or “notes”)
vi. No survey papers can be part of your set of five key papers (so do not choose, for
example, the papers from the Journal of Economic Literature and/or Journal of Economic
Perspectives)
The selection of three good quality articles and research papers is a lengthy process. The
handout Searching the web, EconLit and Social Sciences Citation Index teaches you how to
search for scholarly articles and how to assess the quality of the information on the web. Read
that handout and start as soon as possible looking for articles and research papers.
2
Be very careful when selecting articles and research papers you want to review. It is of
paramount importance that you read and follow the guidelines provided here. In my experience,
students who do not do so often end up having their paper proposal rejected which complicates
the entire term paper writing process (and evidently results in lost marks).
I repeat…the
selection of good quality articles and research papers is a lengthy process.
Take the time to read the articles and research papers you are proposing to review. Make
sure you can actually understand them and that they are closely related to the topic you want to
survey. Once a paper or article that is included in your Report 1 – Paper Proposal is approved by
me, you are stuck with it.
For tips on how to read scholarly articles, watch the following video prepared by McMaster
library staff

II.2 More Specific Guidelines
II.2.1 Not All Academic Research Qualifies
We want to establish some lower bounds on the quality of the articles and research papers you
will review. Here are guidelines to follow:
i.
Journal articles must be published in a journal that appears in the top 250 publications
listed at
https://ideas.repec.org/top/top.journals.simple.html
BUT: articles at the Journal of Economic Literature and the Journal of Economic
Perspective are NOT acceptable.
ii.
If you select a working paper, you must check the credentials of the author(s). Has the
author (one of the authors) published several papers in the top 250 journals? If not, you
must reject the paper.
II.2.2 Types of Data used in the Papers you are Reviewing.
Acceptable Types of Data.
Observational Data: real world data from a survey (Labour Force Survey or Census) or
administrative source (such as health care records or tax data).
Experimental data:
A Natural Experiment refers to a set of observational data that measures some real world
phenomenon that the researcher believes closely approximates the differences that one would
observe between treatment and control groups in an experimental setting. Common examples
3
are differences in government policies (such as tax rates or public health insurance) between
provinces or countries or changes in such policies over time. All studies that use observational
data can be thought of as using a natural experiment in that a key assumption underlying the
statistical analysis in any multiple regression is that unobserved variables (the error term) are not
correlated with both the dependent variable and the observed independent variables which is the
result one gets if “treatments” (the values of the independent variables) are assigned randomly.
Social Experiment: data from a large scale experiment designed and run by social scientists in
order to test some policy innovation. Participants know they are in an experiment.
Laboratory experiment: an experiment designed and run by social scientist in a laboratory
setting.
Field experiment – a small scale experiment designed and run by social scientist in a real world
setting. Participants often do not know they are in an experiment.
What about simulated data?
acceptable.
A paper that relies exclusively on simulation data is not
II.2.3 Types of Analysis:
You must select papers containing data analysis.
Purely theoretical papers (i.e. containing no data analysis) are not appropriate as one of your key
five papers.
Multivariate Analysis is always acceptable. The most familiar example of this is multiple
regression where one estimates the relationship between some dependent variable, such as
earnings, and a series of independent variables or determinants such as schooling, age, sex, year,
occupation and size of city.
Bivariate Analysis is generally not acceptable. Bivariate analysis means using simple graphs of
time trends in variables or correlations between two variables (earnings and schooling) or
differences in average values between two groups (difference in average earnings between
university and high school graduates). Bivariate analysis is acceptable in the context of an
experiment in which random assignment of individuals to treatment and control groups makes
such simple comparisons appropriate.
III. Report 1 – Paper Proposal.
Submission instructions:
Deadline: 6 pm (Toronto time), Friday, October 8th, 2021.
4
You must upload an electronic copy into the “Assignment” folder on A2L.
If you submit your work late (without submitting an MSAF) you will be penalized. Late by 24
hours or less: 10% penalty. Work submitted more than 24 hours late will not be graded and earn
a grade of zero.
If you submit an MSAF, you still have to submit report 1
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Detailed Guidelines
Part I
In the first part of your proposal you describe in a few lines the topic you want to work on. You
must state the economic question you are after. Be as specific as you can. A vague question will
signal to me that you actually have not made up your mind about your research topic. You must
also state the government policies that are related to your proposed work.
Part II
For two of your articles/papers, provide a summary, in bullet-form, covering the following eight
items:
1. a complete citation and a web link.
2. justify how the paper/article meets the criteria described in sections II.2.1, II.2.2 and
II.2.3 above
3. the economic question being investigated in the paper/article
4. briefly explain how the paper/article directly relates to your research topic
5. specific economic policy(ies) that directly relates to the paper/article
6. the data [sources, periods, countries/provinces/states covered, type (observational,
experimental)]
7. method of analysis used (if multivariate regression, tell me what the dependent variable is
and what the independent variables are)
8. the paper/article’s main conclusions
Part III
For the other paper/article you plan to review please do the following:
1. provide a complete citation and a web link.
2. justify how the paper/article meets the criteria described in sections II.2.1, II.2.2 and
II.2.3 above.
5
3. briefly explain how the paper/article directly relates to your research topic.
Additional note: All of your 3 key papers/articles must meet all of the criteria in sections II.2.1,
II.2.2 and II.2.3. If your review includes more than 3 papers/articles, then the extra papers/
articles must meet the criterion in II.2.1 but not necessarily those in II.2.2 and II.2.3
Format
•
All margins set to 2.5cm, use 12pt fonts and line spacing=1.5.
•
Page limit = your report cannot exceed 2 pages (excluding the title page)
•
Each paper should have a title page and a list of references. Please use the short form for
referencing, e.g., (Mulroney, 1992, p. 12) and then give the full citation in the List of
references. Use the APA citation format. (See this link, for example: https://
www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/ )
Footnotes and end notes are discouraged.
Number your pages and make sure all pages are legible.
Points will be deducted for poor spelling and grammar. Use a good spell check and
grammar check.
•
•
•
•
6
Please avoid a large number of quotations.
Fall 2021
ECON 4F03
Svetlana Demidova
Guidelines for:
I. Selection of Term Paper Topic (p. 1)
II. Selection of Scholarly Articles or Research Papers to be Reviewed (p.2-3)
III. Report 1 – Paper Proposal (p. 4-5).
Deadline: 6 pm (Toronto time), Friday, October 8th, 2021.
You should follow the guidelines provided in this document very carefully.
months of the course that you build the foundations of your term paper.
It is in the first
I. Selection of Term Paper Topic
Your individual paper will consist of a critical review of three articles or research papers that
use data and relatively advanced analytical methods to test economic hypotheses or answer
economic questions related to public policy.
You may consider a wide range of economic topics. While you can use course topics, you
cannot use course articles. You are welcome to use lists of references from course articles to find
related articles.
Canadian content is always welcome but policy issues from other economies, either developed or
transitional, are just as welcome.
Examples of Topics from Previous Years.
•
•
•
•
Analyzing the Effects of Improving Childcare Accessibility on Female Labour Force
Participation
Do Intellectual Property Rights Truly Promote Innovation and Economic Growth in
Developing Countries?
An Investigation into the Effects of Incentives on Academic Performance
An Investigation into the Causal Relationship Between Technological Advancement and
Wealth Inequality
The McMaster library staff prepared videos on many research related topics. You can find
those videos at
https://library.mcmaster.ca/research/how-library-stuff-works
There is one video on “How to choose an essay topic”
1
h t t p s : / / w w w . y o u t u b e . c o m / w a t c h ?
v=HjOZtHqb_q0&list=PLjB7x34VHLf5ooJegDE5Jmt4V7iE8tm50&index=23
II. Selection of Scholarly Articles or Research Papers to Review
II.1 General Guidelines
You are to review only academic research which generally appears in one of two forms:
i.
Articles published in refereed academic journals. To learn more about the refereeing
process watch
h t t p s : / / w w w . y o u t u b e . c o m / w a t c h ?
v=Z4JJbkpLPQI&index=18&list=PLjB7x34VHLf5ooJegDE5Jmt4V7iE8tm50
ii.
Research papers (sometimes also referred to as “working papers” or “discussion papers)
issued by well recognized university departments of economics, not-for-profit research
institutes (such as the Institute for Research on Public Policy in Montreal or the National
Bureau of Economic Research in the US), and government research organizations such as
Statistics Canada.
Unacceptable articles include but are not limited to the following:
i.
Articles in newspapers and magazines.
ii.
Articles by politicians, political parties, unions, business groups, or advocacy
organizations whose principal objective is not to “get the right answer” but to influence
public policy. Such papers constitute “advocacy research”, i.e., evidence favoring one’s
position is highlighted and evidence not favoring one’s position is ignored or minimized.
There is no intent to be unbiased. Academic research is inevitably biased, given that it is
authored by human beings, BUT the goal is to be as unbiased as possible.
iii. Most web-sites unless you are downloading a paper which classifies under one of the two
categories listed at the beginning of section II.1.
iv.
Publications which simply report data (employment levels or life expectancies) are not
research papers. Research papers attempt to answer some economic question.
v.
Very short research papers (referred to as “letters” or “notes”)
vi. No survey papers can be part of your set of five key papers (so do not choose, for
example, the papers from the Journal of Economic Literature and/or Journal of Economic
Perspectives)
The selection of three good quality articles and research papers is a lengthy process. The
handout Searching the web, EconLit and Social Sciences Citation Index teaches you how to
search for scholarly articles and how to assess the quality of the information on the web. Read
that handout and start as soon as possible looking for articles and research papers.
2
Be very careful when selecting articles and research papers you want to review. It is of
paramount importance that you read and follow the guidelines provided here. In my experience,
students who do not do so often end up having their paper proposal rejected which complicates
the entire term paper writing process (and evidently results in lost marks).
I repeat…the
selection of good quality articles and research papers is a lengthy process.
Take the time to read the articles and research papers you are proposing to review. Make
sure you can actually understand them and that they are closely related to the topic you want to
survey. Once a paper or article that is included in your Report 1 – Paper Proposal is approved by
me, you are stuck with it.
For tips on how to read scholarly articles, watch the following video prepared by McMaster
library staff

II.2 More Specific Guidelines
II.2.1 Not All Academic Research Qualifies
We want to establish some lower bounds on the quality of the articles and research papers you
will review. Here are guidelines to follow:
i.
Journal articles must be published in a journal that appears in the top 250 publications
listed at
https://ideas.repec.org/top/top.journals.simple.html
BUT: articles at the Journal of Economic Literature and the Journal of Economic
Perspective are NOT acceptable.
ii.
If you select a working paper, you must check the credentials of the author(s). Has the
author (one of the authors) published several papers in the top 250 journals? If not, you
must reject the paper.
II.2.2 Types of Data used in the Papers you are Reviewing.
Acceptable Types of Data.
Observational Data: real world data from a survey (Labour Force Survey or Census) or
administrative source (such as health care records or tax data).
Experimental data:
A Natural Experiment refers to a set of observational data that measures some real world
phenomenon that the researcher believes closely approximates the differences that one would
observe between treatment and control groups in an experimental setting. Common examples
3
are differences in government policies (such as tax rates or public health insurance) between
provinces or countries or changes in such policies over time. All studies that use observational
data can be thought of as using a natural experiment in that a key assumption underlying the
statistical analysis in any multiple regression is that unobserved variables (the error term) are not
correlated with both the dependent variable and the observed independent variables which is the
result one gets if “treatments” (the values of the independent variables) are assigned randomly.
Social Experiment: data from a large scale experiment designed and run by social scientists in
order to test some policy innovation. Participants know they are in an experiment.
Laboratory experiment: an experiment designed and run by social scientist in a laboratory
setting.
Field experiment – a small scale experiment designed and run by social scientist in a real world
setting. Participants often do not know they are in an experiment.
What about simulated data?
acceptable.
A paper that relies exclusively on simulation data is not
II.2.3 Types of Analysis:
You must select papers containing data analysis.
Purely theoretical papers (i.e. containing no data analysis) are not appropriate as one of your key
five papers.
Multivariate Analysis is always acceptable. The most familiar example of this is multiple
regression where one estimates the relationship between some dependent variable, such as
earnings, and a series of independent variables or determinants such as schooling, age, sex, year,
occupation and size of city.
Bivariate Analysis is generally not acceptable. Bivariate analysis means using simple graphs of
time trends in variables or correlations between two variables (earnings and schooling) or
differences in average values between two groups (difference in average earnings between
university and high school graduates). Bivariate analysis is acceptable in the context of an
experiment in which random assignment of individuals to treatment and control groups makes
such simple comparisons appropriate.
III. Report 1 – Paper Proposal.
Submission instructions:
Deadline: 6 pm (Toronto time), Friday, October 8th, 2021.
4
You must upload an electronic copy into the “Assignment” folder on A2L.
If you submit your work late (without submitting an MSAF) you will be penalized. Late by 24
hours or less: 10% penalty. Work submitted more than 24 hours late will not be graded and earn
a grade of zero.
If you submit an MSAF, you still have to submit report 1
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Detailed Guidelines
Part I
In the first part of your proposal you describe in a few lines the topic you want to work on. You
must state the economic question you are after. Be as specific as you can. A vague question will
signal to me that you actually have not made up your mind about your research topic. You must
also state the government policies that are related to your proposed work.
Part II
For two of your articles/papers, provide a summary, in bullet-form, covering the following eight
items:
1. a complete citation and a web link.
2. justify how the paper/article meets the criteria described in sections II.2.1, II.2.2 and
II.2.3 above
3. the economic question being investigated in the paper/article
4. briefly explain how the paper/article directly relates to your research topic
5. specific economic policy(ies) that directly relates to the paper/article
6. the data [sources, periods, countries/provinces/states covered, type (observational,
experimental)]
7. method of analysis used (if multivariate regression, tell me what the dependent variable is
and what the independent variables are)
8. the paper/article’s main conclusions
Part III
For the other paper/article you plan to review please do the following:
1. provide a complete citation and a web link.
2. justify how the paper/article meets the criteria described in sections II.2.1, II.2.2 and
II.2.3 above.
5
3. briefly explain how the paper/article directly relates to your research topic.
Additional note: All of your 3 key papers/articles must meet all of the criteria in sections II.2.1,
II.2.2 and II.2.3. If your review includes more than 3 papers/articles, then the extra papers/
articles must meet the criterion in II.2.1 but not necessarily those in II.2.2 and II.2.3
Format
•
All margins set to 2.5cm, use 12pt fonts and line spacing=1.5.
•
Page limit = your report cannot exceed 2 pages (excluding the title page)
•
Each paper should have a title page and a list of references. Please use the short form for
referencing, e.g., (Mulroney, 1992, p. 12) and then give the full citation in the List of
references. Use the APA citation format. (See this link, for example: https://
www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/ )
Footnotes and end notes are discouraged.
Number your pages and make sure all pages are legible.
Points will be deducted for poor spelling and grammar. Use a good spell check and
grammar check.
•
•
•
•
6
Please avoid a large number of quotations.

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Explanation & Answer:
2 pages

Tags:
economic times

Canadian government

government policies

trade policies

natural capital wealth

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