Macroeconomic Theory Discussion

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ECO208Y1
Assignment I
University of Toronto
Department of Economics
Macroeconomic Theory
Professor Murat Alp Celik
Due: December 9, 2021
An electronic copy must be submitted via Quercus before 6:10 pm.
1
Instructions
Your report should be typed. The graphs can be created using Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, or
similar software. The final report to be uploaded should be saved as a single PDF file.1 If you
miss the deadline, you get a grade of zero.2 Please see the syllabus for more details on grading.
2
Data
On Quercus, you will find an Excel spreadsheet (ECO208A1 Data.xlsx ).3 Use the information
in the file to answer the questions below. For each question, you should have one diagram with
multiple series. Please have no more than two diagrams per page in your assignment. Make sure
the axes are properly labelled, include a legend for the series, and ensure the text is large enough
to read. Here are some geographic definitions that you will use:
1. Western Canada includes British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.
2. Central Canada includes Ontario and Quebec.
3. Maritimes includes Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.
1
Make sure you learn how to do these well before the submission date so that you do not have to struggle with
technical difficulties at the last minute. Learning these basic computer skills is a must in any profession you might
join, and this will also help you in your other courses.
2
The initial due date of the assignment was December 2, 2021; but I will waive the 30% late penalty for this
assignment, and add another week on top, so that you have three weeks instead of two. It is still advised to finish
it up before then so that you have time to study for the second midterm.
3
If you cannot open the Excel file, you can access a Google Sheets version here: https://docs.google.com/
spreadsheets/d/1xEn8aMOn8Sc6BNLlXtlFbjYfWinqCXnSTiFXGAr3Dgg/edit?usp=sharing
1
3
Questions
1. Calculate the participation rate for the Maritimes, Central Canada, and Western Canada
(three regions) from 1976 to 2016. Graph your calculations in a time series diagram. Comment
briefly on the trend.4
2. Calculate the fraction of the working age population that is employed for the three regions
from 1976 to 2016. Graph your calculations in a time series diagram. Comment briefly on
the trend.
3. Calculate the unemployment rate for the three regions from 1976 to 2016. Graph your
calculations in a time series diagram. Comment briefly on the trend.
4. Calculate capital per worker in the three regions. Graph your calculations in a time series
diagram. Which regions have the most capital per worker?
5. Calculate output per worker in the three regions. Graph your calculations in a time series
diagram. Which region’s workers produce the most output?
For the following questions, assume that the income share of capital ? is 1/3
and the income share of labour 1 ? ? is 2/3 for all Canadian provinces in all time
periods.
6. Use the basic Cobb-Douglas production function, Yt = At Kt? Lt1?? , to estimate total factor
productivity At for the Maritimes, Central, and Western Canada from 1981 to 2015.5 Use
annual employment for L. Graph your calculations in a time series diagram.
7. Continuing from question 6, calculate the total factor productivity in Central Canada relative
to that in the Maritimes; and Western Canada relative to that in the Maritimes. Graph these
two series across time. What do you observe?
4
Short Essay
Read the article by Andrew Coyne titled “What Would Real Job Loss Insurance Look Like?”6 In
750 words or less,7 write an essay that addresses the following question, aimed at an audience of
policymakers:
Do you agree or disagree with the premise that the system of employment insurance system in
Canada encourages unemployment in certain industries? Critically analyze the arguments in the
article. You can rely on the models we have used in our class for your reasoning; but you should
not make technical statements that would not be intelligible to professionals not familiar with the
models.
Instructions regarding citations: You are free to cite information from outside sources, but
you need to cite these properly. You can have a look at APA citation guidelines on the internet
4
A single paragraph is sufficient to answer these questions.
Note that you know the values of Yt , Kt , Lt , and ? for each year t and region.
6
You can find this saved as Coyne.pdf on Quercus; or access is through http://www.macleans.ca/general/
what-would-real-job-loss-insurance-look-like/
7
Include the word count at the end of your essay. You cannot go over 750 words.
5
2
to learn how to properly format your citations. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden. See http://
www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/using-sources/how-not-to-plagiarize for more on how
to avoid this. You do not need to cite Andrew Coyne’s article or the CANSIM data you downloaded
from the course website.
3
How To Cite in Economics
By Baxter Robinson
Why We Cite
• Demonstrate we are participating in an academic discussion
As a student your job is to engage with existing knowledge. The best way to do this
is to demonstrate precisely which sources you are using
• Allow the reader to verify the information
Your reader should be able to find the original source of the facts, quotes or ideas that
you use. If they cannot do so, how can they know that your information is reliable?
• Show respect for other authors
If someone does the hard work of collecting data, writing down complicated thoughts
or thinking up a new idea, they should get the credit for their work.
Citation Basics
Whenever you are writing an assignment, essay or academic paper, you will need to include
both in-text citations and a reference list.
• An in-text citation identifies the source of the quote each time that you quote,
paraphrase or summarize. It does not provide all of the information a reader would
need to find the source, but enough information to determine which source in the
reference list the information came from.
• The reference list (sometimes called a works cited list or bibliography) is where the
reader can find all the information they need to find the original source on their own.
Note that you cannot just write down the titles of books and the URLs of websites,
this is usually not enough information for the reader to uniquely identify the source.
You should list all the sources you have cited in your text in your reference list. If you
have not discussed a source in your text, double check that you haven’t accidentally
used an idea you got from that source. If you have not used the source, don’t include
it on your reference list.
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is an academic offence where a student represents anyone else’s ideas or work as
their own. There are strict penalties for plagiarism that apply whether or not you intend
to commit plagiarism. It is your responsibility to understand how to cite other’s ideas and
work correctly. Depending on the severity of the offence, penalties can range from receiving
a zero on the assignment to being suspended from the university for a period of 12 months.
1
Common Forms of Plagiarism
• Copying material from a source directly into your document without using quotation
marks and without citing the source
• Poorly paraphrasing from a source
• Missing in-text citations that distinguish which ideas come from which source in your
reference list
• Having anyone else complete any portion of your assignment for you
Referring to Sources
There are several different ways to refer to the things you have read. All of these require
you to include an in-text citation.
Direct Quote If you want to use the exact words from another source, you must put
quotation marks around everything that is taken from that source.
Paraphrase Paraphrasing is when you re-express the idea from another source in your own
words. The best way to paraphrase is to take notes about the source’s ideas, then
construct an entirely new sentence or new paragraph based on those notes. Starting
with the source’s text and changing some of the words is not paraphrasing and may
be plagiarism.
Summary Summarizing is when you reduce the level of detail and express only the central
conclusion of what you have read.
Chicago Manual Author-Date Citation
There are many different citation styles, for example you may have encountered MLA or
APA. In Economics, most peer-reviewed research uses Chicago Manual Author-Date style.
Some Economics professors will ask you to use Chicago Manual Author-Date style, while
others will allow you to use any of the major styles.
In-Text Citations
Within your writing, include the author’s last (family name) and the year of publication
within parenthesis every time that you quote, paraphrase or summarize.
Recent work suggests that a reduction in the gender pay gap will require “changes in
the labor market, especially how jobs are structured and remunerated to enhance temporal
flexibility.” (Goldin 2014).
2
Reference List
In the reference list, you need to include all of the following information:
Book:
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Year of Publication, Title. City of Publication:
Publishing Company
Academic Journal:
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name and Other Author’s Names. Year of Publication.
“Article Title.” Journal Name Volume Number (Issue Number) : Start Page Number End Page Number
Newspaper Article1 :
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Year. “Title.” Newspaper. Month Day. Page
Number (if you accessed it in print) or URL (if you accessed it online)
Blog2 :
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Year. “Title.” Blog Name. Month Day, Year.
URL
Example Paragraph
As technology advances, more jobs are being automated. If the employment rate falls due
to this technological shift, how should governments respond to the decline in tax revenue?
Several prominent thinkers have suggested various new taxes. Writing about rising inequality
in income and wealth, Piketty (2014) argues for a broad-based tax on wealth. Recently, Bill
Gates has suggested a tax on robots, “as a way to at least temporarily slow the spread
of automation and to fund other types of employment” (Delaney 2017). Many economists
disagree with these suggestions, citing classic work showing that long-run capital taxes should
be zero (Judd 1985; Chamley 1986).
References
Chamley, Christophe. 1986 “Optimal Taxation of Capital Income in General Equilibrium
with Infinite Lives.” Econometrica 54(3): 607-622
Delaney, Kevin J. 2017. “The robot that takes your job should pay taxes, says Bill Gates.”
Quartz. February 17. https://qz.com/911968/bill-gates-the-robot-that-takes-your-jobshould-pay-taxes/
1
If a newspaper article does not include a personal author’s name, then the title of the newspaper should
be included instead of the author’s name. For example, many articles in the Economist magazine do not
include an author name, and so should be cited as “The Economist. Year, …”. See the Chicago Manual of
Style Online section 15.49 for additional details.
2
There are lots of high-quality blogs thoughtfully written by brilliant economists, however be aware that
there are also many people writing silly things about economics online. Whenever you come across a blog,
ask yourself whether the blog writer is credible? A few of my favourite Economics blogs are Worthwhile
Canadian Initiative, Marginal Revolution and Economics for Public Policy
3
Judd, Kenneth L. 1985. “Redistributive Taxation in a Simple Perfect Foresight Model.”
Journal of Public Economics 28(1): 5983.
Piketty, Thomas. 2014. Capital in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Is any of this unclear to you? See these additional resources
• How Not to Plagiarize:
How Not to Plagiarize by Margaret Practer. http://advice.writing.utoronto.ca/usingsources/how-not-to-plagiarize/
• How to Paraphrase:
Paraphrase and Summary by Jerry Plotnick. http://advice.writing.utoronto.ca/usingsources/paraphrase/
• How to include non-standard sources in your reference list:
The Chicago Manual of Style Online. U of T online access at: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/6662347
4
What would real job loss insurance look like?
How is it even possible to extend EI to the selfemployed? Would they lay themselves off?
Andrew Coyne
July 2, 2009
Let’s suppose, for one mad, impetuous moment, that the coming bipartisan
discussions on reforming employment insurance have something to do with
reforming Employment Insurance. Bit of a stretch, I know, but just
supposing. What would a reformed plan look like? What might the two
parties come up with, if they were at all, you know, serious?
They might start by changing the name, or I should say unchanging it. It
was Lloyd Axworthy who changed Unemployment Insurance to Employment
Insurance, a piece of linguistic legerdemain that might be described as
Orwellian if it weren’t so bloody obvious about it. You insure yourself in case
something you hope will not happen does—hence fire insurance, flood
insurance, accidental death and dismemberment insurance. In the same
way, unemployment insurance pays benefits in the event of involuntary
unemployment. Whereas employment insurance would seem intended to
help you get past a temporary, unavoidable spell of employment.
Which, come to think of it, is a more or less accurate description of the
system as it now stands. For a great many Canadians, Employment
Insurance is not something they claim in the rare and unpredictable event
that they lose their jobs. It is something they claim every year, as
predictably as the changing of the seasons—exactly so, in what are known
as the “seasonal industries.” It is as if the holder of a fire insurance policy
were to claim for each of a calamitous series of annual house fires. And yet
the system continues to pay out benefits, year after year, as generously as if
they were first-time claimants.
Or rather, more generously: benefits are actually easier to obtain in regions
where unemployment is relatively high—a plausible-sounding policy, were it
not the case that these regions suffer such perennially high unemployment
rates in part because of the easy availability of unemployment insurance.
It’s pointless to debate whether those who claim benefits on such a
persistent basis—as little as 420 hours of work, about 11 weeks, for as much
as 37 weeks’ benefits—are malingerers, or merely responding to incentives.
What’s inarguable is that the system effectively subsidizes employment in
the seasonal industries, out of the premiums paid by industries with more
stable employment records. Workers are encouraged to remain in industries
where they are likely to become unemployed, not least because the system
makes it pricier to hire them for anything else.
So any reform worthy of the name cannot restrict itself to meeting the
short-term needs of workers caught in the grip of a deep recession. It should
rather aim to put the insurance back into . . . whatever we wind up calling it.
Yes, that means dispensing with regional variations in eligibility
requirements, as everyone now seems to agree we should, in favour of one
national standard. And yes, that cannot responsibly be achieved by bringing
everyone down to the lowest standard of eligibility—still less reducing it to
360 hours, as the opposition proposes. Even capping minimum eligibility
requirements at 560 hours in areas where unemployment is less than 10 per
cent (currently these can range as high as 700 hours), as a recent TD Bank
study has proposed, would cost another $500 million—though presumably
this could be offset by raising the bar to the same level in other parts of the
country.
But an insurance system should be based on insurance principles. At a
minimum, that should include “experience-rating” of premiums, at least for
the employer-paid portion, to eliminate the current cross-subsidization of
one industry by another. Premiums in industries with a history of heavy use
of the system would go up; premiums in more stable industries would go
down. We would also do well to follow the C.D. Howe Institute’s suggestion,
and set premiums with a view to balancing the books over the business
cycle, rather than on an annual basis, as at present—a policy that,
perversely, means raising premiums in bad times and lowering them in
good, exaggerating swings in unemployment rather than tempering them.
Fine so far. But as much as unemployment insurance should be about
insurance, it should also be about, well, unemployment. Over time, the
system has been stretched to cover a number of other, ancillary concerns:
first job training, then maternity benefits. These would be better funded out
of general revenues: after all, why should job training be provided only to
those eligible for unemployment insurance, and not to all workers? Is
maternity leave really the sort of catastrophic event for which insurance was
designed?
Either we move these social benefits out from under the umbrella of
unemployment insurance or, inevitably, there will be calls to expand the
system itself to cover those it now excludes. Indeed, that is happening now.
Among the subjects the Conservatives and Liberals plan to discuss this
summer is how to extend unemployment insurance to the self-employed—
not just maternity benefits, as the Tories proposed in their last election
platform, but basic unemployment benefits. How is this even possible? What
will they have to do—lay themselves off?
Not that I expect such common sense from the journeyman pols appointed
to the working group. That suggests an additional reform: take the politics
out of it. Supposedly this was the point of the Tories’ new Canada
Employment Insurance financing board, which will be responsible for setting
premiums in the future. So why not quarantine the system from political
interference more generally? Leave decisions about system design to an
independent board of directors, with a single mandate: to make
unemployment insurance about unemployment insurance.
Chained dollars; Gross domestic product (GDP)
Year
Canada
Maritimes
1981
660.697.000.000 39.554.000.000
1982
640.392.000.000 40.490.000.000
1983
656.328.000.000 42.262.000.000
1984
691.264.000.000 43.924.000.000
1985
723.753.000.000 45.342.000.000
1986
739.837.000.000 46.790.000.000
1987
771.492.000.000 48.594.000.000
1988
808.726.000.000 49.664.000.000
1989
828.011.000.000 50.815.000.000
1990
828.734.000.000 50.697.000.000
1991
810.392.000.000 50.566.000.000
1992
817.271.000.000 51.008.000.000
1993
838.484.000.000 51.793.000.000
1994
879.250.000.000 52.868.000.000
1995
902.797.000.000 54.226.000.000
1996
915.489.000.000 53.999.000.000
1997
953.792.000.000 55.280.000.000
1998
992.032.000.000 57.562.000.000
1999
1.044.723.000.000 60.815.000.000
2000
1.098.338.000.000 62.734.000.000
2001
1.114.518.000.000 64.049.000.000
2002
1.147.309.000.000 68.409.000.000
2003
1.168.963.000.000 70.426.000.000
2004
1.204.677.000.000 71.162.000.000
2005
1.240.361.000.000 72.168.000.000
2006
1.275.613.000.000 73.554.000.000
2007
1.304.201.000.000 75.990.000.000
2008
1.311.376.000.000 76.852.000.000
2009
1.277.185.000.000 74.993.000.000
2010
1.314.817.000.000 77.491.000.000
2011
1.355.752.469.635 78.275.229.504
2012
1.380.144.596.773 76.858.732.038
2013
1.412.214.991.298 77.707.021.436
2014
1.448.201.309.083 77.725.309.467
2015
1.464.786.713.377 78.225.352.307
2016
1.485.606.784.019 79.297.678.780
Central
406.654.000.000
394.263.000.000
408.029.000.000
434.876.000.000
451.489.000.000
466.479.000.000
488.685.000.000
513.536.000.000
525.774.000.000
520.524.000.000
502.332.000.000
506.009.000.000
512.716.000.000
540.277.000.000
555.798.000.000
561.694.000.000
584.488.000.000
609.370.000.000
652.413.000.000
687.612.000.000
699.189.000.000
719.211.000.000
728.763.000.000
747.808.000.000
766.068.000.000
783.031.000.000
798.818.000.000
798.911.000.000
779.975.000.000
801.669.000.000
821.492.499.005
832.898.913.484
844.155.063.989
861.954.189.359
880.203.315.103
900.444.737.826
Western
214.489.000.000
205.639.000.000
206.037.000.000
212.464.000.000
226.922.000.000
226.568.000.000
234.213.000.000
245.526.000.000
251.422.000.000
257.513.000.000
257.494.000.000
260.254.000.000
273.975.000.000
286.105.000.000
292.773.000.000
299.796.000.000
314.024.000.000
325.100.000.000
331.495.000.000
347.992.000.000
351.280.000.000
359.689.000.000
369.774.000.000
385.707.000.000
402.125.000.000
419.028.000.000
429.393.000.000
435.613.000.000
422.217.000.000
435.657.000.000
455.984.741.126
470.386.951.251
490.352.905.873
508.521.810.257
506.358.045.967
505.864.367.413
Year
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Chained dollars; Total all industries; Linear end-year net stock; Total non-residential
Canada
Maritimes
Central
Western
1.021.818.000.000 74.199.000.000 499.591.000.000
418.267.000.000
1.051.935.000.000 76.673.000.000 506.212.000.000
436.380.000.000
1.071.675.000.000 79.075.000.000 510.873.000.000
446.215.000.000
1.086.288.000.000 81.438.000.000 517.762.000.000
453.056.000.000
1.110.530.000.000 83.316.000.000 528.672.000.000
462.300.000.000
1.128.245.000.000 84.743.000.000 542.027.000.000
465.761.000.000
1.152.403.000.000 85.583.000.000 559.897.000.000
470.379.000.000
1.184.489.000.000 87.112.000.000 583.307.000.000
480.272.000.000
1.222.945.000.000 89.331.000.000 608.503.000.000
489.272.000.000
1.253.394.000.000 90.638.000.000 628.656.000.000
498.799.000.000
1.276.734.000.000 91.827.000.000 645.178.000.000
506.990.000.000
1.289.583.000.000 92.233.000.000 653.344.000.000
510.481.000.000
1.299.889.000.000 92.707.000.000 656.382.000.000
515.651.000.000
1.312.103.000.000 93.409.000.000 661.217.000.000
526.568.000.000
1.329.292.000.000 94.418.000.000 667.023.000.000
536.658.000.000
1.347.476.000.000 94.635.000.000 675.718.000.000
545.934.000.000
1.383.276.000.000 95.434.000.000 686.982.000.000
566.525.000.000
1.415.896.000.000 97.004.000.000 700.332.000.000
587.242.000.000
1.451.688.000.000 100.957.000.000 716.450.000.000
604.291.000.000
1.491.224.000.000 103.323.000.000 731.279.000.000
625.643.000.000
1.525.045.000.000 104.416.000.000 741.644.000.000
650.005.000.000
1.549.235.000.000 105.519.000.000 747.459.000.000
666.627.000.000
1.573.397.000.000 106.608.000.000 756.164.000.000
686.762.000.000
1.614.334.000.000 107.976.000.000 769.925.000.000
713.250.000.000
1.674.308.000.000 109.965.000.000 786.828.000.000
753.326.000.000
1.741.508.000.000 112.062.000.000 805.367.000.000
800.325.000.000
1.806.272.000.000 114.032.000.000 823.140.000.000
845.408.000.000
1.872.431.000.000 115.683.000.000 839.609.000.000
892.898.000.000
1.903.787.000.000 117.063.000.000 844.795.000.000
912.929.000.000
1.955.214.000.000 119.749.000.000 857.775.000.000
949.237.000.000
2.016.753.000.000 123.495.000.000 873.471.000.000
992.900.000.000
2.088.002.000.000 126.527.000.000 890.197.000.000 1.044.008.000.000
2.160.288.000.000 130.840.000.000 900.965.000.000 1.099.767.000.000
2.229.456.000.000 135.554.000.000 908.565.000.000 1.155.141.000.000
2.271.764.000.000 139.687.000.000 917.703.000.000 1.183.344.000.000
Employment (Persons); Both sexes; 15 years and over; Estimate; Seasonally adjusted
Year
Canada
Maritimes Central
Western
1981
11236000
809000 7027300 3399700
1982
10774100
792200 6724900 3256900
1983
11187400
805700 7087400 3294300
1984
11430300
824700 7277000 3328600
1985
11860500
855400 7554800 3450300
1986
12079700
860600 7749900 3469200
1987
12583300
898000 8085000 3600300
1988
12849400
938000 8255200 3656400
1989
13066800
940700 8356100 3770200
1990
12934700
952200 8194900 3787700
1991
12810200
927900 8054200 3828100
1992
12721900
909300 7939800 3872900
1993
12848400
903300 7981700 3963500
1994
13245800
932300 8212300 4101200
1995
13356800
940800 8278500 4137400
1996
13465700
924300 8316400 4225000
1997
13874900
951000 8574800 4349000
1998
14200000
979200 8831000 4389800
1999
14611300
1001600 9112300 4497400
2000
14920000
1011400 9329200 4579500
2001
14965600
1023000 9397200 4545500
2002
15507000
1045600 9754200 4707300
2003
15807100
1055800 9922600 4828600
2004
16018100
1073900 10026400 4917700
2005
16233600
1068700 10128600 5036400
2006
16567500
1081700 10283000 5202800
2007
16926900
1100000 10462100 5364800
2008
16948200
1099200 10447800 5401100
2009
16783700
1094400 10329800 5359500
2010
17091600
1100900 10584400 5406400
2011
17292400
1126200 10617900 5548400
2012
17604500
1126300 10837900 5640300
2013
17735400
1122000 10916900 5696600
2014
17843600
1112100 10939600 5791700
2015
17996000
1102800 11071200 5822000
Total usual hours (Hours); All jobs; Both sexes; 15 years and over
Year
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Canada
Maritimes
Central
Western
4.559.660.000
4.611.200.500
4.751.952.400
4.951.315.800
5.061.890.200
5.191.718.300
4.977.845.500
4.997.703.300
5.129.019.600
5.300.282.200
5.464.134.800
5.641.907.500
5.827.378.100
5.958.577.700
5.987.928.900
5.820.784.700
5.753.402.300
5.777.283.900
5.924.522.900
6.028.343.000
6.069.544.400
6.152.566.100
6.303.927.600
6.469.384.200
6.617.762.100
6.686.646.000
6.795.752.600
6.944.236.300
7.097.758.300
7.207.502.800
7.332.380.300
7.488.400.700
7.558.218.900
7.362.672.600
7.438.549.600
7.572.025.700
7.682.037.200
7.784.481.400
7.809.671.900
7.882.101.100
7.923.524.100
351.401.000
349.244.000
360.795.000
376.777.300
383.332.100
386.893.700
373.683.500
374.858.300
384.018.100
390.071.800
400.569.100
411.348.800
430.055.600
436.824.500
441.173.000
431.182.000
420.118.200
420.461.200
424.728.500
428.946.500
426.717.200
428.142.200
441.386.300
453.370.900
460.194.900
462.908.900
472.482.200
476.635.500
487.313.900
486.824.800
490.515.200
496.912.500
501.371.100
496.818.700
499.719.900
502.066.300
508.808.200
506.724.700
503.795.000
501.867.100
497.282.300
2.918.073.900
2.932.654.200
3.009.440.000
3.119.568.000
3.161.764.400
3.222.781.500
3.082.113.000
3.124.360.500
3.235.703.600
3.353.306.300
3.463.204.800
3.608.315.100
3.727.163.900
3.791.036.300
3.777.744.900
3.631.511.100
3.572.379.800
3.561.444.500
3.646.874.400
3.702.637.300
3.719.281.500
3.764.341.700
3.884.035.800
4.006.323.300
4.105.256.700
4.163.380.800
4.236.080.900
4.328.136.200
4.413.027.200
4.455.414.300
4.502.205.000
4.573.471.500
4.596.490.000
4.474.745.200
4.536.075.900
4.623.999.100
4.654.485.900
4.721.405.700
4.724.288.000
4.777.502.000
4.834.886.300
1.290.185.200
1.329.303.100
1.381.717.500
1.454.970.800
1.516.793.300
1.582.043.500
1.522.048.800
1.498.484.000
1.509.298.200
1.556.903.700
1.600.360.600
1.622.243.900
1.670.159.000
1.730.716.700
1.769.011.200
1.758.091.200
1.760.904.400
1.795.378.400
1.852.920.100
1.896.759.300
1.923.546.100
1.960.082.000
1.978.505.300
2.009.690.400
2.052.310.800
2.060.356.500
2.087.189.500
2.139.464.700
2.197.417.000
2.265.263.600
2.339.660.500
2.418.016.800
2.460.357.600
2.391.108.700
2.402.753.900
2.445.960.400
2.518.743.000
2.556.351.600
2.581.588.700
2.602.731.800
2.591.355.300
Employment (Persons); Both sexes; 15 to 64 years; Estimate; Seasonally adjusted
Population (Persons); Both sexes; 15 to 64 years; Estimate; Seasonally adjusted
Canada
Date
Population Labour Force
Jan-76 15015900
10185000
Feb-76 15049000
10199300
Mar-76 15081200
10185500
Apr-76 15113400
10268300
May-76 15145500
10276800
Jun-76 15177600
10312200
Jul-76
15209800
10374500
Aug-76 15242200
10355400
Sep-76 15267000
10385700
Oct-76 15291100
10385400
Nov-76 15314400
10445000
Dec-76 15336500
10500300
Jan-77 15364100
10524800
Feb-77 15390900
10548700
Mar-77 15413000
10529500
Apr-77 15438100
10583100
May-77 15468100
10587300
Jun-77 15491100
10584200
Jul-77
15514200
10619100
Aug-77 15543300
10642800
Sep-77 15566700
10676700
Oct-77 15588700
10692800
Nov-77 15611000
10735800
Dec-77 15631900
10769300
Jan-78 15658500
10770400
Feb-78 15684600
10819800
Mar-78 15705600
10878400
Apr-78 15728400
10904200
May-78 15757000
10936900
Jun-78 15778100
10978900
Jul-78
15797800
11032800
Aug-78 15823400
11065500
Sep-78 15844100
11091400
Oct-78 15864900
11108100
Nov-78 15885400
11171200
Dec-78 15905300
11197900
Jan-79 15930400
11257000
Feb-79 15955100
11233300
Mar-79 15975400
11265900
Apr-79 16001900
11300100
Maritimes
Employment
9465600
9492200
9533200
9572600
9567900
9577300
9584400
9607600
9632900
9612200
9663100
9704700
9716100
9715200
9711100
9737800
9753400
9737000
9737100
9761000
9780700
9801400
9818300
9846400
9863700
9907200
9938800
9968000
9988100
10041900
10097300
10120500
10145700
10202900
10226500
10264000
10322000
10322200
10369700
10390200
Population
1330300
1332800
1335200
1337300
1339700
1342200
1344400
1346800
1348500
1349800
1351500
1352700
1354200
1355900
1357200
1358700
1360900
1362100
1363800
1365600
1367500
1368900
1370600
1372000
1373800
1375500
1376700
1378200
1380500
1381700
1383000
1384900
1386600
1388500
1390000
1391600
1393600
1395200
1396700
1398700
Labour Force
807600
806700
799600
806400
802600
805000
803000
802300
811200
808300
812400
813600
811700
819000
824200
819400
822800
819700
823300
824900
822700
822100
833000
835600
835700
837500
835500
838800
843500
848100
854100
854000
860800
865300
866600
867800
876300
869500
877200
880100
Employment
727200
725500
725300
725400
719100
715600
710200
712000
720100
716100
716800
720200
716800
716900
722700
718400
721400
716400
720000
720600
715800
716900
723900
726200
734600
733000
730300
728500
734400
743100
744100
746100
755200
760600
763400
760400
764600
763800
768800
770600
May-79
Jun-79
Jul-79
Aug-79
Sep-79
Oct-79
Nov-79
Dec-79
Jan-80
Feb-80
Mar-80
Apr-80
May-80
Jun-80
Jul-80
Aug-80
Sep-80
Oct-80
Nov-80
Dec-80
Jan-81
Feb-81
Mar-81
Apr-81
May-81
Jun-81
Jul-81
Aug-81
Sep-81
Oct-81
Nov-81
Dec-81
Jan-82
Feb-82
Mar-82
Apr-82
May-82
Jun-82
Jul-82
Aug-82
Sep-82
Oct-82
Nov-82
Dec-82
16022900
16044700
16070600
16092800
16115300
16145000
16168900
16192500
16220400
16244000
16266800
16294600
16318600
16349100
16370700
16392900
16420900
16442900
16464000
16484400
16508700
16532100
16551800
16571700
16592100
16616900
16635000
16653400
16675400
16694100
16712200
16730300
16751800
16772100
16789900
16807700
16826000
16848300
16864000
16884200
16900000
16916200
16932200
16947700
11311500
11331500
11384600
11414200
11421000
11479900
11506500
11531900
11581200
11603300
11613000
11658300
11644200
11695700
11692100
11736200
11774900
11792700
11819100
11848400
11906000
11989300
11978900
11982500
12048200
12098400
12076400
12087700
12175100
12153900
12148300
12137100
12089500
12084600
12109900
12097900
12118600
12106100
12159400
12098100
12127700
12176900
12182000
12233000
10446900
10480700
10540900
10584300
10588300
10633300
10670800
10683000
10714500
10719300
10726800
10759500
10728600
10775900
10778800
10820200
10877800
10916200
10954500
10968700
11027200
11107700
11100900
11133800
11179200
11215400
11193300
11212100
11156100
11130600
11125700
11063800
11036400
10998100
10972200
10896300
10853100
10765000
10702600
10646700
10634800
10622700
10608700
10621600
1400300
1402000
1403800
1405300
1407100
1408900
1410100
1411200
1412800
1414000
1415200
1417400
1419200
1421100
1422400
1423500
1424900
1425700
1426300
1427200
1428200
1429000
1429700
1430800
1431600
1432600
1433500
1434000
1433900
1434200
1434500
1435100
1435600
1436600
1437300
1438500
1440400
1442900
1445300
1448300
1450400
1452700
1454000
1455600
879800
875500
880700
884200
885200
887500
886700
891600
892000
888700
891600
889400
889600
892800
893600
895100
907000
909600
904800
907900
910100
917300
910000
909700
918900
912500
909500
908000
922300
910200
913800
909100
908700
909900
913600
916000
911800
918100
918700
910800
914600
918800
920000
925700
779200
778800
782100
782800
787700
789100
789300
790600
793000
790600
794800
792300
788700
790400
792600
791100
806800
811400
804900
807200
809400
815700
811300
815900
823900
810700
807500
806800
800700
793500
801500
797900
799600
795500
797900
792500
783800
787000
787600
778200
776500
779000
777900
782000
Jan-83
Feb-83
Mar-83
Apr-83
May-83
Jun-83
Jul-83
Aug-83
Sep-83
Oct-83
Nov-83
Dec-83
Jan-84
Feb-84
Mar-84
Apr-84
May-84
Jun-84
Jul-84
Aug-84
Sep-84
Oct-84
Nov-84
Dec-84
Jan-85
Feb-85
Mar-85
Apr-85
May-85
Jun-85
Jul-85
Aug-85
Sep-85
Oct-85
Nov-85
Dec-85
Jan-86
Feb-86
Mar-86
Apr-86
May-86
Jun-86
Jul-86
Aug-86
16966000
16984200
16998800
17014000
170