Liberty University Field of Management Studies Essay

Description

Steps for writing the research paper:
a) Research paper will be in the following managerial economics topic: 

Benefits      of Managers Understanding Managerial Economics in a Global Environment

b) Provide an outline of the research paper in the topic above.
c) Make sure to include real-world examples in the research.
d) A minimum of 6 scholarly references besides the textbook are required. Book used for class is: Managerial Economics and Business Strategy by Michael R. Baye & Jeffrey T. Prince. ISBN 978-1-260-94054-1.
 
All citations must be properly cited in current 7th edition APA format (see attachment for APA format).

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SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students
Claudia S. Sample
School of Behavioral Sciences, Liberty University
Author Note
Claudia S. Sample
I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Claudia S. Sample
Email: cssample123456789@liberty.edu
Created by Christy Owen of Liberty University’s Online Writing Center
onlinewriting@liberty.edu; last date modified: August 6, 2020
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SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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Table of Contents
(Only Included for Easy Navigation; Hyperlinked for Quick Access)
Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students ……………………………… 6
Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7
Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7 ………………………………………………………………………………… 8
Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract …………………………………………………………………………. 9
Basic Formatting Elements …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Font ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Line Spacing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
Spaces After Punctuation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Footnotes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Heading Levels—Level 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
Level 2 Heading …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Level 3 Heading ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one
space, and begin your content on the same line as shown here. ………………………………… 13
Level 5 Heading …………………………………………………………………. 13
Specific Elements of Academic Papers ……………………………………………………………………………. 13
Tables of Contents and Outlines …………………………………………………………………………… 13
Annotated Bibliographies ……………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
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Crediting Your Sources………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes……………………………………………………………………………. 15
Paraphrasing ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
Block Quotes …………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
How Often to Cite Your Source in Each Paragraph ………………………………………………… 17
Rule for Omitting the Year of Publication ……………………………………………………………… 17
Arranging the Order of Resources in Your Citations ………………………………………………. 17
Two Works by the Same Author in the Same Year …………………………………………………. 18
Two Works by Two Different Authors with the Same Last Name ……………………………. 18
Three or More Authors Cited In-Text ……………………………………………………………………. 18
Number of Authors in the Reference List ………………………………………………………………. 19
Numbers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Displaying Titles of Works in-Text …………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Primary Sources versus Secondary Sources ……………………………………………………………………… 20
Personal Communications ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Resources Canonically Numbered Sections (i.e., the Bible and Plays) …………………………………. 21
Bible and other Classical Works …………………………………………………………………………… 21
Plays …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Lectures and PowerPoints ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Dictionary Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Changes in Reference Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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Electronic Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
Adding Color ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Self-Plagiarism ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Final Formatting Tweaks ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
Exhaustive Reference List Examples & Additional Helpful Resources ………………………………… 26
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
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Abstract
Begin your abstract at the left margin. This is the only paragraph that should not be indented.
Unless otherwise instructed, APA recommends an abstract be no more than 250 words. It should
generally not contain any citations or direct quotes. This should be a tight, concise summary of
the main points in your paper, not a step-by-step of what you plan to accomplish in your paper.
Avoid phrases such as “this paper will,” and just structure your sentences to say what you want
to say. The following three sentences exemplify a good abstract style: There are many
similarities and differences between the codes of ethics for the ACA and the AACC. Both include
similar mandates in the areas of —-, —, and —. However, each differs significantly in the areas
of —, —, and —. For more detailed information, see “Writing an Abstract” at
https://www.liberty.edu/casas/academic-success-center/wp-content/uploads/sites/28/2019/04/
Writing_an_Abstract_Revised_2012.pdf (note that you would not include any links in your
abstract). This is just now at 168 words, so eyeball how brief your abstract must be. Think of
your paper as a movie you want to sound enticing, and the abstract as the summary of the plot
you would share to draw people’s interest into wanting to come and see your movie. You want to
really hook and intrigue them. What you have to say is important! Remember to stay under 250,
words. Keywords highlight the search terms someone would use to find your paper in a database.
Keywords: main words, primary, necessary, search terms
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students
The title of your paper goes on the top line of the first page of the body (American
Psychological Association [APA], 2019, section 2.11). It should be centered, bolded, and in title
case (all major words—usually those with four+ letters—should begin with a capital letter)—see
p. 51 of your Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: Seventh Edition
(APA, 2019; hereinafter APA-7). It must match the title that is on your title page (see last line on
p. 32). As shown in the previous sentence, use brackets to denote an abbreviation within
parentheses (bottom of p. 159). Write out the full name of an entity or term the first time
mentioned before using its acronym (see citation in first sentence in this paragraph), and then use
the acronym throughout the body of the paper (section 6.25).
There are many changes in APA-7. One to mention here is that APA-7 allows writers to
include subheadings within the introductory section (APA, 2019, p. 47). Since APA-7 now
regards the title, abstract, and term “References” to all be Level-1 headings, a writer who opts to
include headings in his or her introduction must begin with Level-2 headings as shown above
(see section 2.27) for any divisions within the introductory section.
If you do choose to include headings in your introduction section (which is optional), be
sure to include two or more subheadings, since APA (2019) forbids stand-alone heading levels.
A second notable change in APA-7 is that writers are no longer required to cite their source every
single sentence that content from it is mentioned (section 8.1). As demonstrated in this paper,
since all of the content (other than the examples included for illustration and reference-entry
variation purposes) comes directly from the APA-7 itself, citations to the APA-7 are only
included for the first instance in each paragraph. Section and/or page numbers are included
parenthetically throughout for the sake of students who desire to know exactly where the stated
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rule appears in the APA-7 itself. In your academic papers, however, it is critical to include the
required author(s) and year, as applicable, for all citations that are included; this may include
more than one citation for each resource per paragraph, as required to avoid any confusion about
the source of that content.
Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing
Most beginning students have difficulty learning how to write papers and also format
papers correctly using the seventh edition of the APA manual. However, the Liberty University
Online Writing Center’s (OWC) mission includes helping students learn how to be autonomous,
proficient writers. The OWC also provides students with templates to help them with basic
formatting elements, but this sample paper is designed to help graduate and doctoral students
learn to master APA rules and formatting on their own, which will prove helpful as they progress
in their studies and work toward future publication in scholarly journals.
For the purpose of instruction, this paper will use second person (you, your), but third
person (this author) must be used in most student papers. First person (I, me, we, us, our) is not
generally permitted in academic papers. Students should refrain from using first or second person
in college courses (even though the APA manual encourages this in other writing venues) unless
the assignment instructions clearly permit such (as in the case of personal reflection sections or
life histories). If in doubt, students should clarify with their professors.
APA-7 delineates separate rules and guidelines between “student” and “professional”
writers (APA, 2019). Because a primary purpose of graduate and doctoral studies is to prepare
those students to publish professionally, Liberty University has decided to have undergraduate
students follow APA-7’s guidelines for “student papers,” and graduate/doctoral students follow
APA-7’s guidelines for “professional papers.” Separate templates are available for each level.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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This sample paper illustrates and discusses the rules and formatting of professional papers, as
required for all Liberty University graduate and doctoral courses using APA-7 style.
Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7
Most of these changes will be discussed in more detail below; this is just a very brief
overview here. APA-7 reverts back to only one space after closing punctuation in the body of the
paper (APA-6 required two spaces; APA, 2019, section 6.1). Student (undergraduate) papers no
longer include a running head or abstract (sections 2.2 and 2.8); professional (graduate/doctoral)
papers require an abstract but the running head is now the same on all pages (the added phrase
“Running head:” from APA-6 has been eliminated; see section 2.8). Title pages are different for
both student and professional formats. The title of a paper is no longer limited to 12 words
(section 2.4).
Citations of all resources with three or more authors now use the first author’s last name
and the term et al. (APA, 2019, section 8.17). Reference entries must name up to the first 19
authors before adding an ampersand and ellipsis (up from APA-6’s six authors; section 9.8).
APA-7 omits the phrase DOI and instead standardizes DOIs to be presented in hyperlink format
(i.e., https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1524838017742386; section 9.35). Formatting guidelines for
annotated bibliographies are included in APA-7 (section 9.51), as well as expanded and
standardized reference entry examples. As discussed above, it is no longer necessary to cite a
source every single time you refer to content gleaned from it as long as it is clear the content
comes from that source (section 8.1); APA-7 also expanded the specific location noted in the
citation to include page, paragraph, section (as used throughout this sample paper, to direct the
student to the exact relevant content), chapter, timestamp, etc. (section 8.13).
APA-7 allows for “self-plagiarism” (clarified and defined below). It also invites writers to
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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highlight the most relevant work first, rather than just present all works in alphabetical order
(APA, 2019, section 8.12).
Heading-level formatting has changed, and APA-7 provides more flexibility in font and
line spacing (APA, 2019). The Bible must now be included in the reference list and its citations
must include the editor’s details and year (section 8.28); there are also new rules for dictionary
entries. Publisher city and state details are omitted from all reference entries except those
involving presentations or conferences, as is the phrase “retrieved from.” Hyperlinks should be
live, but they may be either presented as blue underlining or plain black text.
Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract
APA (2019) delineates separate formatting requirements for what it terms “student” and
“professional” papers. Its descriptions for those labels, however, suggests that it regards
undergraduate-level writing to fall within the student purview, and graduate/doctoral-level
writing (including dissertations and theses) to fall within the professional purview. Since a
significant goal in graduate and post-graduate studies is preparing those students to publish in
scholarly journals at and beyond graduation, it makes sense to train those students in the
formatting that is required for professionals. As such, Liberty University has opted to require the
APA-7’s “student” version format for all undergraduate assignments using APA, and its
“professional” version for all graduate and doctoral assignments. To that end, this being the
sample paper for professional formatting, it includes the additional elements required for such: a
running head (same on all pages), an author’s note, and an abstract. Graduate and doctoral
students will use this format.
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Basic Formatting Elements
Font
APA-7 does not prescribe a specific font or size (APA, 2019, section 2.19) but rather
allows for some choice (e.g., 12-point Times New Romans, 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 11point Georgia, or 10-point Lucinda Sans Unicode). Most journals and academic institutions will
have a preference, however, as even APA-7 acknowledges on p. 44. For this reason—and
because font size can easily be changed if an editor interested in publishing a student’s work
prefers a different font—Liberty University recommends that students use 12-point Times New
Romans font for the body text in all academic papers. Data in charts, figures, and tables should
be presented in 8- to 14-point size in either Calibri, Arial, or Lucinda Sans Unicode font.
Students are not permitted to use any fonts such as script, calligraphy, poster, decorative, or
others not found in published scholarly journals. Since APA-7 itself authorizes a variety of fonts
and sizes, assignments will be gauged by word count rather than page count. Word count
constitutes the number of words within the body of the paper, and excludes the title page,
abstract, reference list, appendices, and other supplemental resources.
Line Spacing
APA-7 adds extra/blank lines on the title page (APA, 2019, sections 2.5, 2.7, 2.21). It also
specifies that spacing in tables and figures may be single-, 1-1/2-, or double-spaced; equations
can be triple- or quadruple-spaced. Footnotes, when used at the bottom of a page, should be
single-spaced (section 2.21).
Spaces After Punctuation
APA-7 reverts back to just one space after closing punctuation in the body of the paper, as
well as in reference entries (APA, 2019, section 6.1). Ordinarily, it would be improper to have a
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paragraph with only one sentence, though APA itself asserts that for its purposes “sentences and
paragraphs of any length are technically allowed.”1
Footnotes
This leads to another new rule in APA-7, one allowing the inclusion of footnotes (APA,
2019, section 2.13). Footnotes should be use very sparingly and are appropriate to include
information such as that in the prior section to alert the reader to supplemental material that is
available online for that thought. Though APA-7 authorizes placement of footnote content either
at the bottom of the page (as in this sample paper) or on a separate page after the reference list
(section 2.21), Liberty University recommends that student place them, when used, at the bottom
of the page, as shown here.
Heading Levels—Level 1
This sample paper uses primarily two levels of headings (Levels 1 and 2). APA style,
however, has five heading levels, which will be demonstrated briefly for visual purposes. See
section 2.27 of your APA-7 (APA, 2019) for more details on heading levels and formatting. In
APA-7, all heading levels are now bolded and in title case (capitalize each major word—usually
those with four or more letters, including hyphenated compound words). Do not capitalize
articles (a, an, the) in headings unless they begin a title or follow a colon. Level 1 headings are
centered, with the content falling on the line beneath each, in standard paragraph format.
Many students misunderstand that you progress from Level 1 to Level 2 to Level 3 to
Level 4 to Level 5, but that is not correct. In fact, your paper may have only Level 1 headings, or
just Levels 1 and 2. The rule of thumb is that you must have at least two of each heading level
that you use, otherwise omit that heading level.
1
See https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/05/index.html
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Headings are basically styling ways of organizing your paper, without using an outline
format. APA specifies five levels of headings; you would likely never use Level 5 and only very
rarely use Level 4 as a student. Think of each level as the different levels in an outline. Roman
numerals, for example, would be Level 1 headings. Capital letters would be Level 2 headings.
Numerals would be Level 3 headings. Lowercase letters would be Level 4. And lowercase
Roman numerals would be Level 5. You must always have two or more of each subheading, but
you do not need every level. You start with Level 1 and work down from that (but not
consecutive 1-2-3-4-5). Under a Level 1, you would either have two+ Level 2 headings or none
at all (just one big section in paragraphs before the next Level 1 section).
Special note about conclusion sections: Please note that some of the sample papers
published by APA to demonstrate proper APA-7 format (including the “professional” sample on
pp. 50-60 of the APA-7 manual) depict the “Conclusion” section with a Level-2 heading. This is
limited to empirical papers that are being submitted for publication in scholarly journals, as those
conclusions pertain to the “Discussion” sections in such papers and are not conclusions of the
overall papers themselves. Conclusions in academic papers at Liberty University will be Level 1
headings (including dissertations and theses, which are divided by chapters, unlike journal article
manuscripts).
Level 2 Heading
Level 2 headings are left-justified (APA, 2019, p. 48). The supporting information is
posed in standard paragraph form beneath it. Never use only one of any level of heading. You
must use two or more of any level you use, though not every paper will require more than one
level. The heading levels are simply demonstrated here for visual purposes, but you would
always have two or more of each under a larger heading, as shown throughout all the other
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sections of this sample paper.
Level 3 Heading
Level 3 headings are bolded, left-justified, and italicized; the content falls on the line
underneath, as with Levels 1 and 2.
Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one space, and begin
your content on the same line as shown here.
Level 5 Heading. Same as Level 4, but also italicized. Despite heavy writing experience,
this author has never used Level 5 headings.
Specific Elements of Academic Papers
Tables of Contents and Outlines
APA (2019) does not regulate every type of paper and some elements in various
assignments are not addressed in the APA-7 manual, including outlines and tables of content. In
those cases, follow your professor’s instructions and the grading rubric for the content and
format of the outline or annotations, and use standard APA formatting for all other elements
(such as running head, title page, body, reference list, 1″ margins, double-spacing, permitted
font, etc.). Note that most academic papers will not require a table of contents, nor would one be
appropriate. One was included in this paper simply for ease-of-access so students could go
directly to the content they want to see. Generally speaking, no table of contents would be
necessary for papers less than 20 pages of content, unless otherwise required by your professor.
That being said, when organizing outlines in APA format, set your headings up in the
proper levels (making sure there are at least two subheadings under each level), and then use
those to make the entries in the outline. As discussed above, Level 1 headings become uppercase
Roman numerals (I, II, III), Level 2 headings become capital letters (A, B, C), Level 3 headings
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become numbers (1, 2, 3), Level 4 headings become lowercase letters (a, b, c), and Level 5
headings become lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii, iii). Many courses now require “working
outlines,” which are designed to have the bones and foundational framework of the paper in
place (such as title page, abstract, body with title, outline/heading divisions, supporting content
with citations, and references), without the full “meat” that fills out and forms a completed paper.
Annotated Bibliographies
Many Liberty University courses also now require students to prepare and submit an
annotated bibliography as a foundational step to building a research paper. There is significant
merit in these assignments, as they teach students to critique the resources they have found and
rationalize why each is relevant for their paper’s focus. APA (2019) includes a section on
annotated bibliographies (9.51; see the example provided on p. 308). The appendix attached to
this sample paper also includes a sample annotated bibliography.
Appendices
Appendices, if any, are attached after the reference list (APA, 2019, section 2.14). You
must refer to them (i.e., “callout”) in the body of your paper so that your reader knows to look
there (see the yellow-highlighted callouts to Table 1 on p. 54 and to Footnote 1 on p. 55 of your
APA-7 for visuals on how this should appear in your paper). The word “Appendix” is singular;
use it to refer to individual appendices. APA-7 regards it as a Level 1 heading so it should be
bolded. I attached a sample Annotated Bibliography as a visual aid (see Appendix). You will see
that I included the title “Appendix” at the top of the page and formatted it in standard APA
format beneath that. Because I only included one appendix, it is simply titled as such. If there are
more appendices, assign a letter to each and denote each by that: “Appendix A” and “Appendix
B.”
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Crediting Your Sources
Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes
Paraphrasing is rephrasing another’s idea in one’s own words by changing the wording
sufficiently without altering the meaning (remember not to just change a word here or there or
rearrange the order of the original source’s wording). Quoting is using another’s exact words.
Both need to be cited; failure to do so constitutes plagiarism. Include the author(s) and year for
paraphrases, and the author(s), year, and page or paragraph number for direct quotes. APA-7 also
expands this to include figure number, time stamp, etc.—whatever detail is necessary to get the
reader directly to that content. Page numbers should be used for any printed material (books,
articles, etc.), and paragraph numbers should be used in the absence of page numbers (online
articles, webpages, etc.; see APA, 2019, section 8.13). Use p. for one page and pp. (not italicized
in your paper) for more than one (section 8.25). Use para. for one paragraph and paras. (also not
italicized in your paper) for two or more (section 8.28). For example: (Perigogn & Brazel, 2012,
pp. 12–13) or (Liberty University, 2019, para. 8). Section 8.23 of the APA (2019) manual
specifies that it is not necessary to include a page or paragraph number for paraphrases (just for
direct quotes), but writers may choose to do so to help their readers find that content in the cited
resource.
When naming authors in the text of the sentence itself (called a narrative citation), use the
word “and” to connect them. For example, Perigogn and Brazel (2012) contemplated that . . .
Use an ampersand (&) in place of the word “and” in parenthetical citations and reference lists:
(Perigogn & Brazel, 2012).
Paraphrasing
Only use quotes when the original text cannot be said as well in your own words or
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changing the original wording would change the author’s meaning. You cannot simply change
one word and omit a second; if you paraphrase, the wording must be substantially different, but
with the same meaning. Regardless, you would need to cite the resource you took that
information from. For example, Benoit et al. (2010) wrote that “although, a link between
attachment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has been established, the
mechanisms involved in this link have not yet been identified” (p. 101). A paraphrase for that
quote might be: A link between dysfunctional attachment and the development of PTSD has
been made, though there is insufficient data to determine exactly how this mechanism works
(Benoit et al., 2010).
Block Quotes
Quotes that are 40 or more words must be blocked, with the left margin of the entire
quote indented ½ inch. Maintain double-spacing of block quotes. APA prefers that you introduce
quotes but note that the punctuation falls at the end of the direct quote, with the page number
outside of that (which is contrary to punctuation for non-blocked quotes). For example, Alone
(2008) claims:2
Half of a peanut butter sandwich contains as much bacteria as the wisp of the planet
Mars. Thus, practicality requires that Mrs. Spotiker nibble one bit at a time until she is
assured that she will not perish from ingesting it too quickly. (p. 13)
Usually quotes within quotes use single quotation marks; however, use double quotation marks
for quotes within blocked quotes, since there are no other quotation marks involved. Also
understand that direct quotes should be used sparingly in scholarly writing; paraphrasing is much
preferred in APA format (APA, 2019, section 8.23), as it demonstrates that you read, understood,
2
Note that there are no quotation marks for block quotes, as shown in the example.
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and assimilated other writers’ content into one cohesive whole.
How Often to Cite Your Source in Each Paragraph
As already mentioned above, APA’s (2019) new official rule is that you no longer must
cite your source every single time you refer to material you gleaned from it (section 8.1). It is
now acceptable to cite your source the first time you refer to content from it in your paragraph,
and then not again in that same paragraph unless your phrasing does not make the source of your
content clear. This is demonstrated throughout this sample paper.
Rule for Omitting the Year of Publication
That being said, APA (2019) has clarified its special rule that excludes the year of
publication in subsequent narrative in-text citations (when you name the authors in the text of the
sentence itself), after the first narrative citation in each paragraph. It should continue to appear in
all parenthetical citations (see section 8.16). For example, Alone (2008) portrays imagery of Mrs.
Spotiker. This includes her devouring a peanut butter sandwich (Alone, 2008). Alone conveys
this through the lens of astronomy. Note that the year of publication was omitted from the second
narrative citation (underlined for visual purposes).
Arranging the Order of Resources in Your Citations
If the material you cited was referred to in multiple resources, separate different sets of
authors with semicolons, arranged in the order they appear (alphabetically by the first author’s
last name) in the reference list (i.e., Carlisle, n.d.-a; Prayer, 2015) (APA, 2019, section 8.12).
APA-7 now invites writers to prioritize or highlight one or more sources as most prominent or
relevant for that content by placing “those citations first within parentheses in alphabetical order
and then insert[ing] a semicolon and a phrase, such as ‘see also,’ before the first of the remaining
citations” (APA., 2019, p. 263)—i.e., (Cable, 2013; see also Avramova, 2019; De Vries et al.,
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2013; Fried & Polyakova, 2018). Periods are placed after the closing parenthesis, except with
indented (blocked) quotes.
Two Works by the Same Author in the Same Year
Authors with more than one