Indiana University Bloomington Immigration Policy in the US Discussion

Description

Using your group presentation policy analysis you will individually write a professional memo.The memo should be 3 – 5 pages in length, with a one page executive summary. Your memo should describe the contemporary policy issue your group selected for the policy presentation, along with your economic analysis and policy recommendation.180 points are available based on evaluation of the memo using the Policy Analysis Memo rubric (below). 12 pt font, 1 inch margins, double-spaced formats are expected.Citations formats are of your choice – but you should be consistent in the reference/citation style that you choose.No late policy memos will be accepted.I will use your policy memo as a final evaluation of your progress in achieving the course objectives:Course Goals By the end of the course you will be familiar with features of various government policies and programs so that you can understand and explain the rationale for government intervention in the economy (such as regulations to correct market failures) and the theoretical impact of these policies and programs on welfare and behavior (based on economic models). Learning Outcomes By the end of the semester students should be able to: Explain the economic rationales for government intervention (and non-intervention) in the economy.Analyze the economic rationales for how regulation may be used to correct market failures.Identify features of various government policies and programs.Use economic models to predict the impact of these policies and programs on welfare and behavior.Explain the results of economic models demonstrating the impact of policies and programs on welfare and behavior.Produce a cohesive policy analysis and recommendation using economic rationales.

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The Economics of
Immigration: What is the
most effective solution?
Jake Greenberg, Kaitlin Kim, Shaianne McGruder,
Mikayla Seman, Thang Uap
Immigration in the US
? Immigrants makes up
14% of the U.S.
population
? Immigrants made up
17% of the U.S. civilian
workforce in 2020
Key Immigration Concerns
1. “Stealing Jobs”
– Wages
Disparities
2. Using Government
Bene?ts
– Reduced Social
Welfare
– DACA eligible for
bene?ts
3. Risk of
Dependence on
Unskilled Migrants
History of
Immigration Policy
in the U.S.
Immigration Act of 1864
-First/Only law in America that encourages
immigration
-Signed by Abraham Lincoln for the “future of America”
-Improved economic development (mining, railroads)
-”Indentured Servitude”
-Repealed in 1868
Immigration and Nationality
Act of 1965
? Eliminated national origins
quota system that limit the
number of individuals from
any given nation who can
migrate to US
? Foreign-born immigrants
has steadily risen since 1970
Early 2000s
2006 Secure Fence Act:
? Construction of 700
miles of “fence” along
Southern border
? Increase other aspects of
border security
DREAM Act (DACA) 2008:
? Legislative proposal to
grant residency, with the
right to work to
immigrants who entered
the country as minors
2016-2020 Donald Trump
Policies: Border Security and
Enforcements
Raise Act (2017):
?
?
?
Reduce legal
immmigration by
50%.
Aimed to end
green cards for
the parents of
adult US citizens
Did not pass the
Senate
“Build a Wall”:
– Intended to
reduce illegal
immigation to
the United States
from Mexico
Executive Orders:
– Increase border
personnel
– Increased
construction of
detention
facilities
– Limited access to
asylum
Current
Immigration Policy
in the US
Current Routes to US
?
?
?
?
?
Family – based immigrantion
Employment-based green cards
Diversity visas
H1B visas for high-skilled foreign workers
Specials cases:
? Refugees
? DACA
? Temporary Protected Status
Pandemic & Immigration
Policy
? Trump’s administration restricted
immigration
? Curbing travel to US
? Halting asylum procedures
? Suspending process of foreign
worker visas & green card
? Limited visas in early 2020 due to
pandemic
Biden Immigration Policy
? Lifted pandemic visa
restrictions
Biden Immigration Policy
Proposals*
? Current single-country green card cap is 7%
? Expand access to family-based
? Clear current backup of applications
? Increase country caps
? Expand access to employment-based
? Current cap is 140,000 a year
? Families admitted via employment visa would not
count towards this cap
*U.S. Citizenship Act was introduced in February 2021; it is currently stalled in the House and unlikely to be passed
Potential Solutions
Alternative Solutions
#1: Make
immigration
more dif?cult
#2: Shift from
Family-Based
to Skill-Based
Immigration
#3: Expand
legal status to
unauthorized
immigrants
Alternative #1: Make
immigration more difficult
? Construction of 700 miles of “fence” along
Southern border
? Increase other aspects of border security
Alternative #1: Trade-offs
Pros
? Reduced number of
undocumented people,
drugs, weapons, and human
traf?cking in US
? Less strain on education
system
Cons
?
?
Burden on taxpayers (~350
million-1.7 billion per mile)
Environmental destruction
? Harder for animals to migrate
Alternative #1: Make
immigration more difficult
Labor
Shortage
Alternative #2: Shift from
Family-Based to Skill-Based
Immigration
Selection of high-skilled immigrants to meet
better labor market prospects.
? Boost innovation
? Long-term economic growth
Alternative #2: Trade-offs
Pros
Cons
? Reduce “chain-migration”
?
Green-card holder sponsors
family for immigration to the
US
? Increase the wages of natives
and earlier immigrants
? Save taxpayers money
? Higher education ?
contribute more to economy
Canadian college-educated
immigrants admitted via point
system on average only earn
high-school level income
Lose out on bene?ts of unskilled
immigrants
?
?
Alternative #2: Shift from
Family-Based to Skill-Based
Immigration
Alternative #3: Expand legal
status to unauthorized
immigrants
? Extend legal status to unauthorized immigrants
living in the United States
Alternative #3: Trade-offs
Pros
? Increase Americans’ income
by $791 billion
? Generate additional $184
billion in taxes a year
? Create 200,000 jobs
? 81% of Americans favor
allowing illegal immigrants to
gain legal status over time
Cons
? Not politically feasible
?
Biden’s more moderate
immigration reforms did not
get past the House ?oor
? Only 4/10 Republicans say
immigrants strengthen the
country
Alternative #3: Expand legal
status to unauthorized
immigrants
SUPPLY/DEMAND GRAPH
Best Solution
Skill-based Immigration is the
best solution
? Increased innovation
? 25.3% of engineering and technology ?rms in the US
have minimum 1 immigrant founder
? Immigrants 2x as likely to start business
? Smaller effect on native wages
? Immigration reduces average wages by 5%/year
? Reduces low-skilled wages by 12%/year
? Therefore; high-skilled immigrants > low-skilled
immigrants= less overall % decrease in wages
Skill-based Immigration: How
would this be implemented?
Point System
? Categories of characteristics
? Weighted by desirability
? Minimum threshold of total points
? Ex- education, work experience
? Follows model of Australia, Canada, New
Zealand
Point System
Example
Point System Cont.
? The point system is a merit-based immigration
system
? Allows the United States to have a population of
immigrants who will bene?t the country
? Will help diversify the population and culture more
within the United States
Conclusion
? All in all, we feel like the best solution is
skill-based immigration
? Positively affects the country
? Better alternative than the other two options
References
Sivaprasad Wadhia, S. (2011, September 16). The 9/11 Effect and its Legacy on U.S. Immigration Laws. Retrieved from
https://pennstatelaw.psu.edu/_file/Immigrants/9_11_Effect_Online_Publication.pdf
Anderson, S. (2021, December 10). A review of Trump Immigration Policy. Forbes. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from
https://www.forbes.com/sites/stuartanderson/2020/08/26/fact-check-and-review-of-trump-immigration-policy/?sh=6bc6b69e56c0
Aydemir, A. B. (n.d.). (rep.). IZA World of Labor. Retrieved from
https://wol.iza.org/articles/skill-based-immigration-economic-integration-and-economic-performance/long.
Camarota, S. A. (1998, January 1). The wages of immigration. CIS.org. Retrieved April 20, 2022, from https://cis.org/Report/Wages-Immigration
Center for Migration Studies. (2021, February 17). President Trump’s executive orders on immigration and refugees. The Center for Migration
Studies of New York (CMS). Retrieved April 19, 2022, from https://cmsny.org/trumps-executive-orders-immigration-refugees/
Cerza, S. (2021, November 1). Fact sheet: Immigrants and public benefits. National Immigration Forum. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from
https://immigrationforum.org/article/fact-sheet-immigrants-and-public-benefits/
Congress of the United States of America. (2021, February 18). H.R.1177 – 117th Congress (2021-2022): U.S … Congress.gov. Retrieved April 19,
2022, from https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/1177/text
Felter, C., Renwick, D., & Cheatham, A. (2021, August 31). The U.S. Immigration Debate. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved April 19,
2022, from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/us-immigration-debate-0
Gallup. (2022, April 11). Immigration. Gallup.com. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from https://news.gallup.com/poll/1660/immigration.aspx
Gelatt, J. (2017, August 21). The raise act: Dramatic change to family immigration, less so for the employment-based system. migrationpolicy.org.
Retrieved April 19, 2022, from
https://www.migrationpolicy.org/news/raise-act-dramatic-change-family-immigration-less-so-employment-based-system
Hunt, J. (2017, August 3). Analysis: Would the U.S. benefit from a merit-based immigration system? PBS. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from
https://www.pbs.org/newshour/economy/analysis-u-s-benefit-merit-based-immigration-system
Immigration and nationality act of 1965. US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2022, from
https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1951-2000/Immigration-and-Nationality-Act-of-1965/
Kelly, A. (2017, August 4). Fact check: Have immigrants lowered wages for blue-collar American workers? NPR. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from
https://www.npr.org/2017/08/04/541321716/fact-check-have-low-skilled-immigrants-taken-american-jobs
Krogstad, J. M., & Gonzalez-Barrera, A. (2022, January 11). Key facts about U.S. immigration policies and Biden’s proposed changes. Pew
Research Center. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from

Key facts about U.S. immigration policies and Biden’s proposed changes


Loweree, J., Reichlin-Melnick, A., & Ewing, W. (2021, April 28). The impact of covid-19 on noncitizens and across the U.S. Immigration System.
American Immigration Council. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from
https://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/research/impact-covid-19-us-immigration-system
Miranda, L. (2010, December 1). Get the facts on the DREAM Act. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from
https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2010/12/01/get-facts-dream-act
Moriarty, A. (2021, March 18). Immigrant farmworkers and America’s food production – 5 things to know. FWD.us. Retrieved April 13, 2022,
from
https://www.fwd.us/news/immigrant-farmworkers-and-americas-food-production-5-things-to-know/#:~:text=Immigrant%20farmworkers%
20make%20up%20an,in%20the%20United%20States%20today.
Nowrasteh, A. (2014, November 17). Boost Highly Skilled Immigration. Cato.org. Retrieved April 20, 2022, from
https://www.cato.org/cato-online-forum/boost-highly-skilled-immigration
Rouse, C., Barrow, L., Rinz, K., & Soltas, E. (2021, September 17). The Economic Benefits of Extending Permanent Legal Status to Unauthorized
Immigrants. The White House. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from
https://www.whitehouse.gov/cea/written-materials/2021/09/17/the-economic-benefits-of-extending-permanent-legal-status-to-unauthorized
-immigrants/
Secure fence act of 2006, Congress (n.d.). bill. Retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/house-bill/6061.
Shear, M. D., Jordan, M., & Fernandez, M. (2019, April 10). The U.S. Immigration System may have reached a breaking point. The New York
Times. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/10/us/immigration-border-mexico.html
Silverman, J. (2016, July 1). Lincoln’s ‘forgotten’ act to encourage immigration – president Lincoln’s cottage: A home for brave ideas. President
Lincoln’s Cottage | A Home for Brave Ideas. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from
https://www.lincolncottage.org/lincolns-forgotten-act-to-encourage-immigration/
Zhang. (n.d.). H1-1B limitations. hooyoo. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from https://www.hooyou.com/h-1b/h1b_limitations.html

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