ECOS 3997 Mobile Based Behavioral intervention Research Paper


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Some important point needs to note in the essay.
(The content is the same as the previous report.)
Important point: Language.
Don’t write this report in the same way you wrote the essay before.
While ensuring the depth of the content, it is necessary to ensure that the content of the
report is feasible for most people with no economic background.
1. Introduction
Need to write about the background of the behavioral intervention and the behavioral
intervention described in the previous report. (Don’t write too much) It’s a bit like the
combination of problem and intervention described earlier. But the way of narration
(writing style) changed a lot. The issue of word limit, all content needs to be briefly
described, the purpose is to arouse the interest of the audience.
2. Main body
80% of the word count needs to be placed here.
You need to describe the background of the problem, the principles of behavioral
intervention, and some discussions involved in behavioral intervention, how to use the
intervention and the expected effects in the future, and so on. (You need to write a lot
of the content of the previous essay, but the writing style needs to change a lot to avoid
duplication with the previous essay! Don’t use the writing style of the previous essay to
How to promote the intervention so that people can use it.
The last essay did not have this process of promoted, but this time it is more like
inclined to a process of promoted products. (How to make the audience willing to use
this thing, and the audience will seriously think that this thing really works for them.)
(Basically equivalent to the vernacular version of the previous report.)
3. Conclusion
In the same way, the conclusion is also the same, there is a summary of our report?
Can write predictions, recommendations.
Similar to the executive summary, to sum it up, but the number of words is still not too
So the question is, everything is basically the same as the previous report, so what is
the difference between them?
Emphasis: The writing style influenced by rhetoric.
Use at least 7 Academic resources.
Rhetorical situation
Then the most invisible condition of this Rubric is the power of persuasion. How to use
rhetoric to make your article more persuasive.
Rhetorical situation is often used in speeches and elections. Understanding the use of
rhetoric can help you write more convincingly.
Five elements of a rhetorical situation:
To be reflected in the report
1. text (no discussion here, we have determined that our form is presentation or some
2. author (Who are you? Your identity may help your audience believe what you say)
For example, if I am a doctor, I tell you to wash your hands more and disinfect with
alcohol during the epidemic, so my audience will believe what I say more.
Or, it can be said that I am a student at the University of Sydney, I am studying this
project with my supervisor. In this way, the audience will feel that I specialize in this
thing, and strengthen the audience’s trust in me.
3. Audience (Who is the audience you are targeting? What is your perspective?)
Who is the audience you are targeting?
Speak clearly. List the problem clearly.
For example, I am writing about medical examinations, so I need to say that I am
targeting people who do not have medical examinations. Those who are afraid of
charging indiscriminately for physical examinations, or those who are afraid of being
What is your perspective?
For example, my perspective is to help people understand this thing. Because from an
economic point of view, I have seen people doing something particularly irrational. I
hope people will do some rational things to help themselves.
It needs to be described in a very sincere way.
4. purpose (What is your purpose? Why do you do it?)
Such as to help people reduce the possibility of acute illness. Reduce tragedy.
It only takes one sentence to use the data.
Need to resonate emotionally.
Like, I really hope to help people reduce tragedies.
And you can use some examples around yourself. For example I really heard by my
mother said that two of her colleagues died of a sudden myocardial infarction. Because
long-term excessive drinking will increase the probability of sudden myocardial
infarction. The two colleagues of my mother really died of sudden myocardial
infarction caused by long-term drinking. It was really a pity and sadness.
5. Settings (Is there a specific time and environment?)
Whether it can help you to give the audience a big environment help. Have a sense of
substitution in this topic.
For example, if the topic is the issue of the COVID-19, you can write, for example, I
am very worried about being infected with the epidemic, so I have done a total of ten
times nucleic acids since the beginning of the epidemic.
Text didn’t directly and bluntly say that I wanted to tell the people what to do, but that
he had a dream since he was a child that one day, he would get equal treatment and so
on. Perhaps many audiences thought about it this way when they were young, and it
will resonate with the audience. His text is very infectious.
His audience do not have white, they all the people who may be racially discriminated
Rhetorical choices
1. Logos
In your argument, add some logical reasoning. Using evidence to prove your argument
is the most effective.
Logos includes inductive and deductive reasoning:
Inductive reasoning: conclusions drawn based on observation and experience.
It should be noted that do not bring in too many personal opinions, which will make
your report too emotional. At the same time, the process of reasoning must be careful
not to jump to conclusions.
Deductive reasoning: Starting from a truth that everyone agrees with, reasoning slowly,
and inducing based on some logic or facts.
If you fail to select success at the beginning (the reason everyone agrees), it will be
difficult for the audience to enter the event you describe.
2. Ethos
Ethos is more like your image in the eyes of the audience. That is, whether the audience
trusts you. No matter how impassioned your speech, if the audience doubts your source
and some of the statements, then you cannot persuade him.
Therefore, we need to strengthen our Ethos from the following points:
a. Use and reference reliable resources
b. Respect
c. Provide organized and well-prepared information
d. Build rapport with the audience
e. Consider your tone and relationship with the audience
f. Provide information about your background and expertise
g. Establish common values and beliefs
h. Accurately portray reverse opinions. (For example, the problem of physical
examination. In addition to talking about the benefits of physical examinations, we also
need to talk about the disadvantages of not having physical examinations.)
(From the perspective of the opposite, to think in accordance with the logic of the
opposite. And then break the argument of the opposite.)
I. Avoid low-level errors (grammar, word spelling)
3. Pathos
How to use text to interact emotionally with the audience?
Arouse their emotions and let them think deeply from your perspective, this is the focus
of the speech. (For example, the text in the picture above: I have a dream…)
Avoid ways that are too emotional and appear false.
Incite their enthusiasm.
Apart from Rhetoric, what else do we need to do to make the article score higher?
1. Strengthen context connection
2. Ensure the conciseness and readability of the article
3. Use relevant evidence to prove some of your arguments
4. Use conjunctions between paragraphs, while ensuring that each paragraph is a
separate paragraph
Use linking words or terms (Firstly, Next, Following that, In conclusion)
4. Each paragraph must have a topic sentence.
Reference style:
At least 7 academic resources!
Be careful do not use too complicated sentences or expressions. It is different from
the previous essay. We need to make the audience feel simple and close to the
people. The format, grammar and so on of this report are very important.
Word length: 1,500 words
Due Date: 12 Nov, 2021
Submission: Online ECOS3997 Canvas site
Background: Economists are increasingly required to work in interdisciplinary teams
and engage with members of the general public to express their research findings.
In this assessment, your task is to educate a non-specialist audience about an issue of
your choice pertaining to behavioural interventions.
You will translate your advanced academic knowledge of behavioural interventions
into an engaging and educating article that a member of the general public can
understand and enjoy. This article could be a magazine article, longform newspaper
op-ed, piece for The Economist, or similar. You can assume your audience cares about
money, but you can’t assume they know how the economy works or the theories that
an economist would use to analyse it.
Assignment task: Write an article for a popular publication to educate a nonspecialist audience about an issue, debate, or future prediction pertaining to
behavioural interventions.
Although a publication like a tabloid newspaper may not include sources ‘in real life’,
your submission still needs to. At least 7 academic sources are required, and should
be referenced properly using a recognised academic style guide such as CMS or APA.
You may also employ your quantitative results from experiments conducted in this
unit if relevant.
A strong submission will take a clear stance and/or pose a clear argument related to
behavioural interventions.
Your article should use language appropriate to a non-specialist audience, and include
thoughtful rhetorical choices designed to engage and educate them.
Please specify who your intended audience are, including a brief indication of their
interests and assumed knowledge. Please also note the publication you are writing
for, and anything you would like to specify about style. For example, ‘I am writing for
people who feel frustrated about taxation brackets and how these effect their takehome pay. I am writing for The Daily Telegraph using an accessible tone so that people
can quickly absorb my message on a daily commute or similar’. This information
should be placed before the heading of your main text to avoid confusion.
Submission process: Using the Canvas site, please submit a .doc or .pdf file of your
article. Turnitin will be used for academic honesty purposes.
Note: It is recommended that you keep a copy of your article to include in a portfolio
of your work, or to share with friends and potential employers.
Quality of writing
• 4
• 12
• 4
• 8
Well-planned and well-thought out.
Includes title, introduction, body and conclusion.
Meets the word length requirement (+/- 10%).
A clear stance and/or pose a clear argument related to topic.
Main ideas are supported with explanations and evidence.
An appropriate tone is used.
Clear and coherent prose with good grammar, spelling and punctuation.
Referencing & Citations
• 3
Proper referencing throughout (CMS or APA).
• 3
Good understanding of how and when to cite a source.
Why is effective communication important?
• Requirement to work in interdisciplinary teams
? Foster good working relationships, improve team morale and increase productivity
• Possible engagement with members of the general public
• Explain policies clearly
Assignment Background:
Economists are increasingly required to work in interdisciplinary teams and engage with members of the general
public to express their research findings.
Educate a non-specialist audience about an issue of your choice.
3 Components to Consider
– Clarity
– Appropriate Language
– Use of Evidence
– Clear and easy to understand
? Shorter sentences used for main points
? Preferably a point in a sentence
? Clear explanation
? What happens when you use long sentences instead?
? Possibility of having too many points
? Difficulty in explaining these points
? Confusion
– Structure
? Three parts: Introduction, Body and Conclusion (will be explained later)
? Smooth flow of paragraphs
? From one paragraph to the next
? Use linking words or terms (Firstly, Next, Following that, In conclusion)
? Reduces confusion for readers/audience and writer
? Indicates completion of a paragraph
? Introduces the conclusion
Appropriate Language
– Article (even presentation) is for the general public
? What is the purpose of the essay (or presentation)?
? Relay a message/ opinion
? Should technical words be used?
? Using them is not frowned upon
? Explain / Define them simply
? Helps readers/audience to better understand your assignment
? Readers/Audience could benefit from this
? Improve their vocabulary
? Learn more from being exposed to such vocabulary
Use of Evidence
– Back claims made
? Evidence used to support claims/points
? Credible sources
? Peer-reviewed journals, conference papers
– Good practice to link evidence to the claims made
? Reinforces the validity of evidence used
Basic Structure
• Several forms of essays
Depends on your subject areas
Body 1
Point 1
Body 2
Point 2
Body 3
Point 3
• First paragraph (introduction)
• The next three paragraphs
• Final paragraph (conclusion)
-Introduce the topic
? Provide a succinct background of the topic
– Thesis statement
? Main point of your essay
? Typically one sentence
Body (Paragraph)
– Begin with a linking word
? Firstly, Next
? Improves flow from one paragraph to the next
– Usually starts with a topic sentence
? Not all the time
? Main point of your paragraph
– The next few sentences
? Explanation
? Evidence
? Examples
– Consider using “In conclusion” or “To conclude”
? Indicating that we have reached the end of the essay
– Restate your thesis statement
– Summarise and recap main points covered
– Final statement
? Reflection of your essay
? Prediction
? Recommendation
Behaviors and Behavioral Intervention
(An overview of People living with type 2 diabetes)
Institution Affiliation:
Word Count: 2513 words
Executive Summary
Health is one of the most crucial things in human life. Where some health concerns are less
critical, some are life-threatening. The personal lives and social lives of individuals affect the
health of an individual. Some are genetic issues, while others are lifestyle issues. In this discussion,
the focus is on the people living with type 2 diabetes. Several social disparities are associated with
people with type 2 diabetes due to spending money on medication, low income, stress due to
general health and life issues concerning them, and low education. All these works together to
deteriorate their general health and behavior. With the risen cases of type 2 diabetes, technology
can be used in behavioral interventions and especially mobile handsets that most people have
access to.
Behavioral interventions are critical in care offered to people with diabetes, and with the
current technology, they can be directly offered to mobile handsets. Technological advancements
have led to most people using their mobile devices. In the current world, more than 60% of the
world’s population has access to a mobile phone. As a result, cell phones can be used by diabetes
caregivers to provide education to their patients. As discussed in this paper, using a cell phone can
reach more people than current interventions. It is also advantageous because it is cost-effective.
The proposed RCT will comprise of two groups made of diabetes type 2 patients. The
participants will be randomly assigned, whereby one of the groups will use the SMS intervention
and the other will not. The trial will run for three months, and data will be collected monthly. The
main objective of this report is to assess the acceptability and the feasibility of mobile-based
behavioral interventions on patients with diabetes 2. The outcome will optimize the behavioral
intervention during its implementation process.
1. The problem
The conditions in which people are born, thrive, live, labor, and mature are social
determinants of health. They are increasingly being recognized for their role in the rise in Type 2
diabetes in the United States and the potential they present for us to combat it. Many of today’s
Type 2 diabetes treatments concentrate on biological and behavioral aspects like signs, nutrition,
and physical exercise (Touma and Pannain, 2011). According to research, social variables have
been linked to the uneven development of chronic diseases and the challenges associated with
controlling them (Blas, Sommerfeld, and Kurup, 2012). This project aims to establish the issues
of social determinants as a causative factor of diabetes.
Behavior that causes Diabetes: Physical Inactivity
Physical inactivity is the leading risk behavior that can lead to diabetes. In the modern
world, people have shifted to modern lifestyles where there is a decrease in habitual physical
activities. From previous researches, it has been found that the prevalence of diabetes among
people who regularly work out is lower compared to inactive people. According to Women’s
Health Study, individuals who moderately exercise through various activities such as walking and
running are likely to be less prone to the risk of diabetes compared to individuals who do not
engage in any physical activities. Involvement in physical activities has a more significant impact
on glucose tolerance (Sheri et al, 2016). From previous research, it is evident that less physically
active individuals have higher post-challenge glucose tolerance levels than physically active
individuals. Non-compliance to physical activity has been found to increase obesity which is the
leading risk factor for diabetes 2. The importance of physical activity is known for weight
regulation and long-term metabolic benefits in the body.
Nevertheless, physical activity helps to lower the blood glucose levels in the body during
the post-exercise period. Also, being physically active helps to enhance insulin sensitivity, which
improves blood glucose tolerance in the body of physically active individuals. For instance, in the
United States, it has been found that most of its population fails to meet the required 150 minutes
per week of medium-intensity physical activity. Therefore, it is essential to note that involvement
in physical activity is one of the health behaviors that can protect an individual from diabetes.
However, being consistent in the involvement in physical activity behavior is a difficult task due
to lack of scalability.
Proposed Solution
Aerobic Exercise
Aerobic exercise increases insulin sensitivity, immune function and cardiac output. Aerobic
exercises are known to lower cardiovascular and mortality rates in diabetic patients. Moderate to
high volume aerobic exercises help to decrease insulin resistance while improving lipid levels and
cardiorespiratory fitness (Sheri et al, 2016). Therefore, aerobic exercises enhance the capacity of
skeletal muscles and glycemic control in diabetic patients resulting in glucose and insulin
Resistance Exercises
Diabetes is a result of a decline in the functional status and muscular strength of an individual.
Diabetic patients must improve their muscle strength, mental health, insulin sensitivity, blood
pressure, and cardiovascular health. Therefore, diabetic patients must do resistance exercises to
reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in the body. Resistance exercise is beneficial in improving
glycemic control, body strength, fat mass and insulin resistance.
Flexibility and Balance Exercises
Flexibility and balance exercises involve limited joint mobility and stretching activities. These
exercises do not affect glycemic control; instead, they increase the flexibility of muscles and
motion around the joints (Sheri et al., 2016). Balance exercises improve balance and gait, reducing
the risk of falls. It is essential for patients to exercise group exercise interventions since it reduces
the chances of falls by 28%. The benefits of resistance and balance training include glycemic
control, body composition and neuropathy symptoms.
2. The Proposed Behavioral Intervention
Mobile-Based Behavioral intervention
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. Up to 95% of people who have
diabetes have Type 2. While it is easy to manage, it is not always the case. Millions of people die
from it annually. Some ways of managing type 2 diabetes include managing glucose levels,
maintaining blood cholesterol, controlling blood pressure, having a balanced diet, regular exercise,
and losing weight. All of these seem easy, but statistics have shown otherwise. The sedentary
lifestyle most people have adopted has resulted in people not exercising and doing more negligible
cooking in their homes. This has increased the phone connections in the world to about 5 billion,
which means that it has reached about 73 percent of the population in the world. This, therefore,
makes mobile-based behavioral interventions critical in the management of diabetes 2.
Text messaging, also known as short message service (SMS), has become a popular mode
of mobile communication. The transmission of synchronized short messages via SMS is almost
instantaneous. Such features, among others, form a considerable part of worldwide communication
and interconnection. Although the Internet, via a computer connection, is an important
communication channel for Americans and health-related behavioral therapies, wireless
communication is spreading faster (Hood et al., 2016). SMS’s utility for health promotion and
behavior change efforts is becoming a focus of study due to their appeal among clients and the
potential of MMS. These mobile-based health technologies can improve health by making
healthcare information and preexisting medical services more readily available and accessible
from a distance.
As the United States works to face changing its healthcare system while lowering costs
and improving patient and healthcare services, Handheld interventions could play a key role in
reaching this goal. Behavior is a constant in diabetes care; whether people with diabetes (PWD)
are adopting a new progressing task, getting to a consultation, or striving to lessen the stress
associated with diabetes, behaviors are involved (Hood et al., 2016). The stress levels which
contribute to poor health status may be from low education, racial issues, age, and financial
stability. PWD and their immediate surroundings and the diabetes care provider advocating
behavior change are frequently included in behavioral transactions around diabetes treatment.
The involvement may not be direct but through mobile devices.
When a diabetes care provider’s efforts to promote behavior change are solely instructional
or primarily focused on “you should” methods, they are ineffectual or inadequate (Buhi et al.,
2013). Diabetes education is unquestionably essential for developing basic knowledge about
diabetes care, both at the initial diagnosis and as management requirements and choices evolve.
Because of the accessibility and appeal of cell phones, health practitioners can reach a wider
audience through innovative use of technology to enhance the quality of care. SMS and MMS can
also be used to deliver cost-effective population-based health promotion or behavior modification
interventions, independent of location. SMS & MMS need less effort and budget than phone
conversations or in-person meetings/clinic consultations because they may be sent with
comparable speed and convenience. With that, individuals may be more informed thus less
distressed on economic issues they encounter, leading them to suffer from diabetes (Buhi et al.,
2013). Indeed, some research suggests that high-quality diabetes awareness associated with health
practices may result in cost reductions and health advantages for some individuals. Various studies,
notably the large-scale diabetes education trial DAFNE in the United Kingdom, have indicated
that academic education to enhance illness knowledge alone is insufficient to change behavior and
maintain behavioral treatment of chronic disorders, including diabetes. Integration with
technology-based behavior change strategies, on the other hand, is required for a longer-lasting
Personal significance and meaning are another essential part of communicating behavior
change information. Providers are encouraged to personalize health advice to match particular
characteristics such as gender, race, age, and finances rather than making a one-size-fits-all
prescription (NDS, 2011). The recommended practice should be linked to specific health
implications for each PWD, not only for diabetes patients as a whole. As a result, given the ease
with which SMS or MMS can be used for health promotion or risk mitigation, they could be used
with slight strain on personnel or clinics resources. Mobile initiatives may be essential components
in reaching this goal as the globe moves forward in tackling the problem of transforming its health
care system while cutting costs while advancing patients, notably PWD and health services (Hood
et al., 2016). Because of the accessibility and ubiquity of cell phones, health practitioners will be
easier to target audience through innovative use of technology to improve health outcomes. If the
mobile-based behavior intervention is involved, populations that have embraced mobile
technology may be the most receptive to mobile-Health therapies for chronic illnesses like
diabetes. Besides, SMS/MMS technology should be considered by healthcare practitioners
working with Latin American or African communities for promoting health and behavior
modification initiatives.
Intervention impact and the chance of working
Since most people have mobile handsets or mobile phones, most people can easily access
behavioral information offered by caregivers. The intervention discussed above will make a big
difference if it works. Caregivers would easily offer behavioral interventions and education related
to type 2 diabetes to their patients and the community. It would reach a more significant number
of people compared to the current interventions, and therefore, it would make a difference. The
intervention has a meaningful chance of working. It will be cost-reductive, providing information
on behavioral interventions, increasing interactivity between the patients and caregivers, and
reaching many individuals. The increased use of mobile phones in this intervention can create
medical platforms that can open doors to caregivers offering more help through mobile phones
(Hood, 2016).
Proposed RCT
The proposed RCT will comprise of two groups made of diabetes type 2 patients. The
participants will be randomly assigned, whereby one of the groups will use the SMS intervention
and the other will not (Behnaz et al, 2020). One of the groups will have significant interactions of
both treatment and time using the SMS. The trial will run for three months, and data will be
collected monthly. This will entail evaluating the participants to check their blood glucose
concentrations and their weight monthly. The main objective of this report is to assess the
acceptability and the feasibility of mobile-based behavioral interventions on patients with diabetes
2 (Olsson, 2012). Also, the goal of the intervention is to reduce the cost of behavioral interventions
while providing efficient and effective services to a more significant number of people who have
diabetes. The primary objectives include:
To demonstrate how the mobile-based behavioral intervention can be feasible.
To determine the eligibility and willingness of the two groups to be randomized.
To conduct an evaluation strategy for effective implementation of mobile-based behavioral
intervention in providing primary care for diabetes patients.
To demonstrate how physical inactivity leads to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity
in the body.
The secondary goals include:
To estimate the variability of physical activities in glucose tolerance, glycemic control,
muscle strength, cardiovascular health, fat mass, body strength and insulin resistance
between the two groups and the outcome measure.
To estimate the variability of physical inactivity behavior and the self-efficacy of the
mobile-based behavioral intervention in respect to an evaluation strategy in providing
primary care for diabetes patients. To estimate the mean difference between the two groups
and the outcome.
There are two groups to the trial; the control group and the intervention group. It is unclear
whether the physical activity behavior in diabetic patients and mobile-based intervention program
will be feasible and accepted during primary care nursing. Sample size- a total of 40 patients with
diabetes will be recruited from various regions. The patients will be hand-picked randomly in
phase one, while eligibility criteria will be used in phase two. Twenty patients will be randomized
to use SMS and MMS services, while 20 patients will be under clinical care (Behnaz et al, 2020).
The trial will be reported based on physical activity behavior through mobile-based behavioral
intervention and primary nursing care. The information from pilot testing will enhance statistical
power calculation to determine whether the RCT demonstrated is acceptable and feasible. The
success of the behavioral intervention depends on the willingness of both the control and
intervention groups to participate in the study (Behnaz et al, 2020). The outcome will optimize the
behavioral intervention during its implementation process. Data will be analyzed using thematic
analysis and by a second researcher. Since it is difficult to blind patients in behavioral interventions
like this case, statistical analyses will be done by a statistician blind to treatment allocation.
Recruitment will be randomly allocated to each group. A computer derived the randomization
process from decreasing the risk of uneven recruitment of the two groups. Using a mobile phone
to reach people is more practical considering the current technology, and most people are using it.
The main reason for this intervention is that most things are being done on the phone, and most
people have access to mobile phones.
Therefore, using mobile phones to reach a lot of people would be easier and cost-effective
(Olsson, 2012). Also, in recent times, people have been using mobile phones as an immediate form
of communication. It can be a helpful tool where awareness can be raised and reach the larger
community. The study found out that there are improvements in physical activity when
professionals and nurses use mobile-based behavioral intervention to educate patients on the
importance of being physically active (Olsson, 2012).
Blas E, Sommerfeld J, Kurup AS, (2012). Social determinants approach public health:
from concept to practice [monograph on the Internet] Geneva, Switzerland: World Health
Bryant T, Daiski I, Lines E, et al. (2010) Type 2 diabetes: poverty, priorities, and policy:
the social determinants of the incidence and management of Type 2 diabetes [monograph on the
Internet] Toronto, Ontario, Canada: York University School of Health Policy and Management;
2010. Mar 16, [retrieved September 28, 2021,
But, ER. Et al., (2013) Mobile Phone-Based Behavioral Intervention for Health: A
Systematic Review. DOI: 10.1177/0017896912452071
Comprehensive, culturally sensitive care and self-management support improve healthrelated behaviors, clinical outcomes, and emotional health in Native Americans with diabetes
[monograph on the Internet] Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality;
2011. August 3, Retrieved September 28, 2021,
Hood, K.K. et l., (2016) Effective strategies for encouraging behavior change in people
with diabetes. Retrieved September 28, 2021, from