Business and Economic Development of Shenzhen Paper

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Research Paper
• Analyze the business and economic development prospects of a city
(or region)
• Paper will be 5-7 pages.
• The paper should have a conclusion that summarizes the major
points and suggestions for further study.
• The paper needs complete lists of references and consistent citation
style
Research Paper’s Content
• The analysis will provide a profile of trends in the city or region.
• The focus will on the urban area’s competitiveness and clusters.
Example of What to Include in the Research Paper
Introduction
Theme: Is the city/region stable and growing or declining, post-pandemic prospects
Overview: Principal findings
Structure of the paper
Regional Legacy and Background
Economic History, Geography, Demographics, and Natural Advantages
Urban and Regional Economic Analysis
Per capita and median household income
Employment growth trends
Poverty and inequality
Regional Cluster Portfolio
Industrial structure
Employment by industry
Occupational distribution
Cluster Strengths
Location quotients and other measures
Patenting and innovative indicators
Education, Human Capital, and Creative Class
Housing and Real Estate
Urban problems: crime, pollution, congestion
Comparison with similar cities and regions
Porter Diamond Framework and SWOT analysis
Conclusion
• The highlighted section in the previous slide are the most important
and you must write about them all.
Resources
You may use additional resources, but this are very important examples
of what you should use.
Attached files:
• THE STORY OF SHENZHEN, Its Economic, Social and Environmental
Transformation.
• The History of Shenzhen, Minjie Guo.
Links:
https://www.china-briefing.com/news/chinas-city-clusters-plan-totransform-into-19-super-regions/
https://tradingeconomics.com/china/currency
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.2747/15387216.45.3.190?needAccess=true
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt24h93t.8?refreqid=excelsior%3A6a2d3e
9bec53ae6f522dbf2eb302ae6f&seq=7
The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation.
THE STORY OF SHENZHEN
UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME
Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
P.O. Box 30030, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
info@unhabitat.org
www.unhabitat.org
THE STORY OF SHENZHEN
Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
THE STORY OF SHENZHEN
First published in Nairobi in 2019 by UN-Habitat
Copyright © United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2019
All rights reserved
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)
P. O. Box 30030, 00100 Nairobi GPO KENYA
Tel: 254-020-7623120 (Central Office)
www.unhabitat.org
HS Number: HS/030/19E
ISBN Number: (Volume) 978-92-1-132840-0
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the
legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers of boundaries.
Views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the United Nations Human
Settlements Programme, the United Nations, or its Member States.
Excerpts may be reproduced without authorization, on condition that the source is indicated.
Cover Photo: Shenzhen City @SZAICE
External Contributors: Pengfei Ni, Aloysius C. Mosha, Jie Tang, Raffaele Scuderi, Werner Lang, Shi Yin,
Wang Dong, Lawrence Scott Davis, Catherine Kong, William Donald Coleman
UN-Habitat Contributors: Marco Kamiya and Ananda Weliwita
Project Coordinator: Yi Zhang
Project Assistant: Hazel Kuria
Editors: Cathryn Johnson and Lawrence Scott Davis
Design and Layout: Paul Odhiambo
Partner: Shenzhen Association for International Culture Exchanges (SZAICE)
Table of Contents
Foreword………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
Preface……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vii
Contributors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….viii
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… x
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xii
Chapter 1 : The Global Value Chain In Shenzhen and the Pearl Delta Region………………………………………………1
Chapter 2 : Financing the City, Financing the Firms and Financing Entrepreneurship………………………………..19
Chapter 3 : Modern Economic Growth, Special Economic Zone and Industrialization……………………………….39
Chapter 4 : City Growth and Urban Planning: Encountering the Challenges of Population Growth………….54
Chapter 5 : Basic Services and Local Infrastructure………………………………………………………………………………………66
Chapter 6 : Environment and Eco-City……………………………………………………………………………………………………………86
Chapter 7 : Culture and Modern Story………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
Chapter 8 : Shenzhen: A Comparative Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
List of Figures
Figure 1 :
Population and its growth of Shenzhen over the last 40 years………………………………………………………2
Figure 2 :
Shenzhen’s GDP and growth rate over the last 40 years………………………………………………………………..3
Figure 3 :
Shenzhen’s fiscal revenue and its growth rate over the last 40 years…………………………………………….3
Figure 4 :
Shenzhen’s export and import over the last 40 years…………………………………………………………………….4
Figure 5 :
Economic model of Chinese urban development……………………………………………………………………………5
Figure 6 :
Integrated Transport and Land Value Capture………………………………………………………………………………32
Figure 7 :
The average annual growth rate of GDP in Shenzhen (1980-2016)……………………………………………..40
Figure 8 :
World’s top 20 city centers for patents during 5 years………………………………………………………………….42
Figure 9 :
Application for international patents in major countries in 2007 and 2017………………………………..43
Figure 10 : World’s top 100 clusters patent and scientific publishing performance………………………………………44
Figure 11 : Shenzhen’s mobile phone cluster is constantly updated from assembly
to manufacturing and innovation……………………………………………………………………………………………………45
Figure 12 : Hierarchy of needs (according to Maslow)………………………………………………………………………………………66
Figure 13 : Infrastructure systems, satisfaction of human needs and interaction with our ecosystem…………67
Figure 14 : The land area of the four cities from 2000 to 2016………………………………………………………………………..72
Figure 15 : The population of the four cities (a) and their Growth rate compared to 2000 (b)………………………72
Figure 16 : Population density in four cities……………………………………………………………………………………………………….73
Figure 17 : The primary energy requirement from 2010 to 2015…………………………………………………………………….73
Figure 18 : The efficiency of energy consumption…………………………………………………………………………………………….73
Figure 19 : Energy consumption per capita……………………………………………………………………………………………………….74
Figure 20 : Share of energy supply sources in 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………74
Figure 21 : Gross electricity consumption………………………………………………………………………………………………………….75
Figure 22 : The electricity consumption by households per capita………………………………………………………………….75
Figure 23 : Share of electricity generation sources in 2015……………………………………………………………………………..75
Figure 24 : The total CO2 emissions from 2010 to 2015……………………………………………………………………………………76
Figure 25 : The CO2 emissions per unit GDP (a) and per capita (b) in 2013…………………………………………………….76
Figure 26 : Modal split of the four cities…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….77
Figure 27 : Total water consumption………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….79
Figure 28 : Water consumption by households per capita……………………………………………………………………………….79
Figure 29 : The share of water supply sources………………………………………………………………………………………………….80
Figure 30 : The green area distribution and ratio in the four cities
(Map images from Google Earth© and captured in 2018)……………………………………………………………81
Figure 31 : The public green area per capita in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………..82
Figure 32 : Haze days and PM2.5 concentration in Shenzhen……………………………………………………………………………89
Figure 33 : Diagram of energy structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….90
List of Tables
Table 1:
Shenzhen: Major Economic Indicators……………………………………………………………………………………………22
Table 2:
Shenzhen Revenue and Expenditure 2012-2016 (10,000 Yuan)…………………………………………………..24
Table 3 :
Shenzhen Labour Force Employment and Distribution
Entrepreneur Numbers and Enterprise Per Capita Employees…………………………………………………….45
Table 4 :
Population and Built-Up Area………………………………………………………………………………………………………….59
vi
| The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
Foreword
Southeast China, its coastal ports and history of trade,
is particularly close and related to Southeast Asia, my
home region. For centuries, the Chinese have ventured
into the Nanyang, which is modern day Southeast
Asia or the Southern Ocean, developed close trading
partnerships and even established settlements. This
pioneering spirit has created a wealth of opportunities
for the people of both regions. It is not surprising that
Shenzhen, the modern day leading city of Southeast
China, once again proves to be an inspiring place.
This book shares economic, planning and environmental
policies and strategies implemented by Shenzhen,
which in a just four decades has emerged as the Silicon Valley of China. This remarkable economic and social
development has been built on high-tech, manufacturing and service industries. Today, it is knowledge-based
industries that drive Shenzhen’s development. Its economic output is ranked third highest among 659 Chinese
cities and according to the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Shenzhen is the twenty-second most competitive
financial center in the world. In 2016, Shenzhen’s contribution to China’s GDP was USD303 billion, surpassed
only by Shanghai and Beijing.
Yet, cities are not merely places where people reside or sites where the production of goods and services takes
place. Through their own internal dynamics, cities are key drivers for growth and development. They generate
wealth and prosperity, serve as hubs of innovation and transformation, create multipliers, facilitate redistribution
of assets and opportunities, increase productivity and contribute to balanced territorial development.
For this four decade-old miracle to continue, the old Chinese practice of long-term thinking needs to be practiced.
Sustainable development must be pursued in order to address current global challenges of rising poverty, social
inequity, environmental degradation and climate change. In our rapidly urbanizing world, with more than half of
the population now living in cities, the question of sustainable urban development comes to the fore. We must
ask ourselves how we can improve the quality of life of urban citizens, while ensuring that urban areas remain
economically productive, socially inclusive and environmentally sound for both present and future generations.
Shenzhen is truly a remarkable success story. Many growing cities, special economic zones and new cities can
learn a lot from its experience. I am pleased to present to you this book, which draws upon the expertise of
specialists representing various fields and institutions. It will help us understand many stories that make up the
Shenzhen experience.
Maimunah Mohd Sharif
United Nations Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)
The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
|
vii
Preface
It is with great pleasure that I write this brief message
for this book The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic,
Social and Environmental Transformation.
Shenzhen has achieved tremendous economic and
social development within the last four decades since
the establishment of Shenzhen Special Economic
Zone in 1980. This book documents Shenzhen’s
progress over the years from economic, social
and environmental perspectives. Last year, China
celebrated the four-teeth anniversary of its reform
and opening-up. This year we are celebrating the
four-teeth anniversary of the establishment of the city of Shenzhen, and next year we will welcome the fourteeth anniversary of the inauguration of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone. I am pleased that UN-Habitat is
publishing this book at this important time for Shenzhen.
UN-Habitat is committed to promote economically, socially and environmentally sustainable human
settlements development and the achievement of adequate shelter for all. Many cities, towns and special
economic zones in other countries can be inspired by Shenzhen’s experience in its urban development. I
would hope that this book will contribute to the body of knowledge on urban development, and benefit city
leaders, urban planners, academics and economists.
Xiaogan LI
President of Shenzhen Association for International Cultural Exchanges
viii
| The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
Contributors
and Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen,
and Professor of HSBC Business School in Peking
University. He graduated from the Institute of
Marco Kamiya is the head of the Urban Economy
Economics of Nankai University with the major
and Finance Branch of UN-Habitat. He manages
in Political Economics. He was the Vice Director-
field projects and conducts research in areas of
General of the Shenzhen Municipal People’s
municipal finance, economics of urban expansion,
Government and a Member of the Third National
and local infrastructure investment policies. Prior to
Expert Committee on Climate Change Adaptation.
joining UN-Habitat, he was with (CAF) Development
Bank of Latin America in Caracas, and with the
Raffaele Scuderi is Professor of Applied Economics
Inter-American Development Bank in Washington
at Kore University of Enna, Italy where he teaches
DC. Previously he led International Development
economics and international cooperation and
Projects at PADECO Co., Ltd., a global consulting firm
serves as the Coordinator of the economics area for
in Tokyo. He studied international development at
the Ph.D. of Economics and Law. He is the editor of
Harvard University.
Tourism Economics. He has been the coordinator
of research projects for development and firm
Pengfei Ni is the Director of the Center for Urban
internationalization. His research areas include
and Competitive Research of the Chinese Academy
tourism and cultural economics, urban and regional
of Social Sciences (CASS). He is an assistant to the
economics, development economics.
president of the National Academy of Economic
Strategy and the Vice President of the China Urban
Werner Lang is Professor of Energy-Efficient and
Economics Association. Also, he is the Head and
Sustainable Design and Building at the Department
Chief Urban Economist of the joint research group
of Architecture as well as the Department of Civil,
between CASS and UN-Habitat. He has specialized
Geo and Environmental Engineering at the Technical
in urban economics, real estate economics, space
University of Munich (TUM), Germany. He is Director
finance,
national
of the Center for Sustainable Building, founding co-
competitiveness. He has published over 40 books
urban
competitiveness
and
director of the Centre for Urban Ecology and Climate
and many articles in Urban Studies, Cities, Social
Adaptation (ZSK). Also, he is Director of the master’s
Science in China and Economic Research Journal.
program on resource-efficient and sustainable
building at TUM.
Aloysius C. Mosha is Professor and Dean of the
Faculty of Built Environment, Arts and Science at the
Shi Yin is a doctoral student in the Eco-city and
University of BAISAGO, Botswana. He has extensive
Green Building Lab at the School of Architecture at
practical and academic experience in urban and
South China University of Technology (SCUT), China.
regional planning, human settlements, environment,
He is a visiting scholar in the Energy-Efficient and
climate change and municipal finance. He has carried
Sustainable Design and Building at the Department
out extensive research related to physical planning
of Architecture and in the Department of Civil, Geo
and other cognate subjects. He has participated in
and Environmental Engineering at the Technical
several settlement master plans and other design
University of Munich, Germany.
projects, and environmental impact assessment
studies. Prof. Mosha has published many articles in
Dong Wang is the Director and a Researcher in
local and international journals.
the Climate Change and Low Carbon Economy
Research Center of Harbin Institute of Technology,
Jie Tang was the Former Vice Mayor of Shenzhen
Shenzhen, and the Dean of the International
Municipal People’s Government. Currently, he is
Academy of Low Carbon Development, Shenzhen.
a Professor in the Harbin Institute of Technology,
He received his Doctor’s Degree in Economics
Shenzhen, an Adjunct Professor of Nankai University
from Nankai University. He holds the International
The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
|
ix
Certified Management Consultant qualification and
Science from Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario
his studies focus on sustainable development and
and Master and Ph.D. degrees from University of
regional economies.
Chicago, USA. He was a professor in McMaster
University, the Balsillie School of International Affairs
Lawrence Scott Davis is a Foreign Expert at
and the University of Waterloo in Canada. He retired
Nanjing University. He is the author of The Classic of
in 2017.
Changes in Cultural Context: A Textual Archaeology
of the Yi jing. He studies archaic Chinese culture and
Ananda Weliwita is an economist in the Urban
its classical tradition, researches and writes about Yi
Economy and Finance Branch of UN-Habitat.
jing, Analects, and Zuo zhuan. He teaches Chinese to
He contributes to promoting local economic
English translation of Confucian classics.
development and innovative revenue-generating
strategies for local authorities. He has a Ph. D.
Catherine Kong is Master’s student in literature in
degree in agricultural economics from University of
the School of Foreign Languages and Literature at
Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
Shandong University, China. She is writing a thesis
on ghosts in Joyce’s Ulysses. She is interested in
Yi Zhang is a consultant in the Urban Economy and
studying modernity in literature and treatment of
Finance Branch of UN-Habitat. She has managed the
urban life and modernity in twentieth century novels.
production of this book. She has a Master’s degree
in engineering with specialization in environmental
William Donald Coleman is Professor Emeritus
direction from University of Melbourne, Australia.
in McMaster University and University of Waterloo,
She has conducted research on energy efficiency,
Canada. He obtained a Bachelor’s Degree in Political
renewable energy and sustainable infrastructures.
x
| The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
Introduction
traditional government financing models, such as
land-leasing and government-invested companies,
creative measures adopted by Shenzhen include
Shenzhen has transformed itself from a small fishing
issuing of local government bonds and public-
village into a global economic powerhouse in just
private-partnerships. The innovation in finance is
over 40 years. It has experienced rapid economic,
closely related to the industrial growth in Shenzhen.
social and environmental transformation and is
described as being innovative, inclusive, young and
In Chapter 3, modern economic growth, special
high-tech. In this book, UN-Habitat documents the
economic zones and industrialization in Shenzhen
experience of Shenzhen and shares lessons it has
since 1980 are presented. Between 1980 and 2016,
learned during the past 40 years.
Shenzhen recorded an average annual GDP growth
rate of about 20 percent. In China, Shenzhen has the
Chapter 1 introduces Shenzhen’s development
highest economic openness and market economic
and the important role it plays in the global value
development. This is a result of its land use reforms,
chain. Shenzhen’s rapid development since 1979
housing systems, introduction of foreign-funded
can be explained in four stages. The first stage,
banks, establishment of regional joint-stock banks, a
from 1978 to 1992, can be characterised by labour-
foreign trading system and the talent market. These
intensive development supported by opening-
improved the market for capital, technology, talent,
up and institutional reforms. During the second
property rights, trade, information and innovation.
stage, from 1992 to 2003, Shenzhen reached the
As the core city of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-
lower-middle position in the global value chain,
Macao Greater Bay Area, Shenzhen has access to
with a focus on capital-intensive development.
innovative resources and technologies, research and
While introducing the socialist market economy, it
development resources and social products that
attracted foreign direct investment and accelerated
boost its potential to stay competitive. Shenzhen
the transfer of electronic and information industries.
government facilitates this process by carrying out
The third stage, from 2003 to 2013, involved
necessary institutional and administrative reforms.
economic transformation amidst rapidly rising land
prices. During this period, Shenzhen graduated to
Chapter 4 presents three main phases of urban
the middle of the global industrial value chain. It
planning in Shenzhen: 1980-85 period, 1985-90
improved the attractiveness of the city and private
period and the post-1990 period. It discusses the
high-tech businesses formed clusters, fostering a
relationship between urban master plans and five-
new momentum for innovation. In the last stage,
year planning, which supported Shenzhen’s rapid
from 2013 to 2018, Shenzhen successfully reached
development. Three urban master plans describe
innovation-driven development and the highest
the shaping of land use from a clustered linear
echelon of the global industrial value chain.
model to a multiple axes network structure and then
towards a polycentric urban development model
Chapter
2
discusses
expenditures,
municipal
city
revenues
financing
and
with two centres and five sub-centres. Migrants,
approaches
new labour and tourists make great contributions
and innovative strategies inspired by them. There
to the city. But they also cause explosive population
are two main sources of finance for Shenzhen’s
growth, exacerbating challenges relating to urban
regional municipality—central government transfers
space, housing, employment opportunities and
and local or own sources. In general, own sources
public services. These challenges slow down the
of revenue exceed transfers it receives from the
integration of urban villages into the urban context.
central government. A large amount of municipal
Luckily, these problems have been emphasised in
expenditure is spent in five key areas—urban and
the most recent planning documents, like the New
rural communities, housing, science and technology,
Urbanization Plan, and through the improvement in
education and energy and conservation. Apart from
environmental protection and transportation. It still
The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
cultural
institutions
and
|
xi
poses a great challenge for future planning of land
abundant
resources
use management and resource allocation, but the
including museums, libraries, theatres, concert
city continues planning for sustainability.
halls and art galleries, in response to the needs of
city residents and the booming tourism industry.
Chapter
5
is
on
local
However, in addition to this “high culture” aspect,
infrastructure in Shenzhen. By measuring success
this chapter also explores “culture” as the medium
and fostering sustainable development for basic
of daily human existence, like “language”, which can
services and local infrastructures, this chapter
more directly and deeply reflect the story behind
proposes indicators for analysing the strategies,
Shenzhen’s development over the years. With a
methods and technologies used for the sustainable
special focus on “villages inside the city”, considering
provision of basic services, including energy, mobility
life style changes of Shenzhen’s original local
and transport, water supply and Green Urban
farmers and immigrants, the issues of traditionality
Infrastructures. Data in Shenzhen is compared to
and modernity are discussed here. This makes
cities in a similar geographical and climatic situation
Shenzhen a microcosm, indicating the way for the
(Hong Kong and in the city-state of Singapore)
transformation of China from a traditional to a
and cities in totally different situations with regard
modern culture. Unlike economic development, the
to political, geographical, cultural and climatic
transformation of culture requires a much longer
conditions (Berlin). Recommendations are made
process, up to two or three generations, with more
for energy efficiency improvement and renewable
complex components that require patience and
energy
increased self-referential modification of its cultural
utilization,
basic
public
services
transit
and
promotion,
increased water dependence and expansion of
worldview.
green urban infrastructures.
Chapter
8
discusses
livelihood
and
social
Chapter 6 focuses on the environment. Shenzhen
policies adopted in Shenzhen. In this chapter, a
encountered has many challenges in the process
comparative analysis is made between Shenzhen,
of rapid development, including environmental
China and Toronto, Canada. These two cities were
bottlenecks and pressures brought about by
both originally regional market towns. Toronto
overpopulation, excessive expansion, and high
changed from a conservative and protestant city
density. This chapter addresses problems of land,
to a large, diverse and global city after 1980 with
resources,
that
booming immigration, as Canada’s largest and one
have restricted the development of traditional
environment
and
population
of the world’s most diverse cities, while Shenzhen
enterprises. Shenzhen has constructed an eco-
developed from Bao’an county to a sub-provincial
city. It includes energy structure adjustment and
city after the establishment of the Shenzhen Special
energy efficiency improvement, increase in the use
Economic Zone in 1980, and ranked third in China
of clean energies, reduction of carbon emissions,
for economic output in 2017, behind only Beijing
industrial transformation and upgrading, as well as
and Shanghai. The difference in history, location,
green infrastructure system construction and green
area, language, immigrants and indigenous people
building promotion for achieving environmentally
between Shenzhen and Toronto are compared in
friendly development. The creation of Shenzhen
the chapter.
eco-city relies on the integration of industrial policy
guidance, employment of market price leverage,
financial credit and transformation of traditional
enterprises through technical upgrading.
Chapter 7 is dedicated to Shenzhen’s culture
and its modern story. Shenzhen developed from
a cultural desert to a city of libraries, to a city with
xii
| The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
Acknowledgements
Municipal
Human
Settlements
Commission,
Shenzhen Municipal Transportation Commission,
Shenzhen Municipal Education Bureau, Shenzhen
We gratefully acknowledge the financial contribution
Municipal Civil Affairs Bureau, Shenzhen Municipal
of
Culture, Sports and Tourism Bureau, Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Municipal
Government
for
the
Municipal Finance Office, Shenzhen Municipal
production of this book.
Academy of Social Sciences, Shenzhen University,
We thank Xiaogan Li and Jinhai Chen, Director
Shenzhen Museum, Shenzhen Contemporary Art
and Deputy Director, respectively, Department of
and Urban Planning Museum, Shenzhen Institute of
Communication, Shenzhen Municipal government,
Building Research, and Shenzhen Municipal Water
for their patronage, Jian Yang, Director of Theory
Affairs Bureau.
Research Unit, Department of Communication,
project
We express our great appreciation to the following
coordination, and Ran Zhang, Theory Research
individuals for drafting chapters of the book: Pengfei
Unit, Department of Communication, Shenzhen
Ni, Aloysius C. Mosha, Jie Tang, Raffaele Scuderi,
Municipal government, for logistical support.
Werner Lang, Shi Yin, Wang Dong, Lawrence Scott
Shenzhen
Municipal
government,
for
Davis, Catherine Kong, and William Coleman.
We thank the following institutions for providing
Municipal
Last but certainly not least, we thank Rong Yang,
Center,
Senior Human Settlements Officer, Programme
Shenzhen Municipal Development and Reform
Division of UN-Habitat and Yi Zhang, Consultant,
Commission,
Urban Economy and Finance Branch of UN-Habitat,
information
Government
and
data:
Shenzhen
Development
Shenzhen
Research
Municipal
Economic,
Trade and Communication Commission, Shenzhen
for coordinating the project.
Municipal Science and Technology Innovation
Commission, Shenzhen Municipal Urban Planning
and
Land
Resources
Commission,
Shenzhen
Marco Kamiya and Ananda Weliwita
The Story of Shenzhen: Its Economic, Social and Environmental Transformation
|
1
Chapter 1
The Global Value Chain In Shenzhen and
the Pearl Delta Region
Pengfei Ni and Marco Kamiya
Introduction
Shenzhen ranked fifth in the world in terms of
economic competiti