Bio 109 Homework on chapter 12 The Central Nervous System…

Question Answered step-by-step Bio 109 Homework on chapter 12 The Central Nervous System… Bio 109 Homework on chapter 12The Central Nervous System Word/Phrase Bank CerebralinsulasmelatonindifferentmeningealsensoryNissl’sspinal nerves12 pairsinvoluntaryrami communicantsdescendingBrainstemRamiPersonalityparietal associated areavoluntary movementcerebrummovementThalamusTastecerebellum?primary auditory cortex.cerebrospinal fluidOccipitalplanning and coordinationFissuresCentralprefrontal cortexconnectivecerebral aqueductfrontalrelaylimbic systemInterneuronsMeningesH or butterflyProtectionautonomic nervousspinal nerveprotective paddings3 order neuronsGrayWernicke’sprimary sensory corticesmidbrainmyelinatedeye movementVertebralSomaticlumbarcerebellarWhitelateralspinal cordTectumSuperiorlobesponsbrainventriclescognitive attitudeVisiondiencephalonmagnumbreathinggustatory cortexemotionsskeletal muscleCerebellumfilum terminal8 pairvisceral sensorydorsalsleep and wake cycleCoccygealI pairNeocortex5 pairshearing,internal and externalgray matterBroca’sskeletal muscleshypothalamuslateral gray hornascendingspinal cordsecond orderEpiduralEndocrinesub-duraperipheral nervouscoughingcervicalcerebral cortexdura mattercerebral cortexgray commissurestwo spinocerebellar tratsmotorCNSsomaticjoint positionsensory informationlateral fasciculus cuneatussecond largestautonomicvoluntary motorarachnoid mattersomatosensoryHornspia matteraxonswhite matterbody posturesensory receptorsPainVentral 1. The brain is connected to the spinal cord, and together they form the ………………………………. nervous system. The brains weigh between 1250 to 1450 grams and is made mostly of nerve tissues, epithelia tissues, and ……………… tissues. There are 4 cavities in the brain called…………………… These ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The brain consisted of 4 main divisions, the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the……………………………….. 2. The ……………………….. is the largest part of the brain and is divided in to the right and left hemispheres. Each hemisphere is further divided into ………………… containing groups of neurons responsible for high mental functions. 3. The right and left diencephalons are buried deep into the right and left ………………….. hemispheres respectively. The diencephalon connects and …………………….information between the …………………..hemispheres and the rest of the brain via the brain stem. 4. The ………………………..is the second division of the brain and is posteriorly and inferiorly placed. They are the also divided into right and left hemispheres. They are responsible for ……………………………….. of movement especially complex spotting activity or playing an instrument. The brain stem connects the diencephalon with the………………………., and is made up 3 parts, the mid brain, the………………….., and the medulla oblongata. The brainstem is involved in ………………………. homeostasis, certain reflex actions, and monitoring movement. 5. The spinal cord is a long tubular organ enclosed within a protective ………………….. cavity, and it blends with the interior ………………………… layers of the brainstem. It is about 43-46 cm in length, and 0.65-1.25 cm in diameter. The central canal is filled with…………………………, that circulates through the ventricles of the brain. 6. Outer few centimeters of the brain are ………………… matter because it contains numerous cell bodies with lots of dark ………………………. bodies. Deeper into the brain are mostly …………………. matter, with gray matter scattered throughout. The spinal cord has gray matter inside and white matter outside. White matter are mostly bundles of ……………………… axons. 7. The cerebrum is divided in to 5 types of lobes, the …………………lobes, the parietal lobes, the temporal lobes, the occipital lobes and the ……………… The frontal lobes are the most anterior and is responsible for planning and executing of …………………… and complex mental functions such as behavior, conscientiousness, and………………………. . The parietal lobes are located just after the frontal lobes and the most ……………………part of the brain. They are responsible for processing and integrating …………………………….information pertaining to attention. 8. The temporal lobes form the ………………. surfaces of the two hemispheres and are involved in ………………., language, and emotions. The two ………………………. lobes form the posterior parts of the hemispheres, and they are related to……………. The insulas are buried deep underneath the lateral ………………………of the brain, and they are related to sense of …………………. and internal organs. 9. The gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres are also known as ……………………..comprise mostly of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons. All the neurons in the neocortex are i………………….. The neocortex is divided into 3 areas, the primary motor cortex, the………………………….., and the associated areas. 10. The primary motor cortex is involved conscience planning of ………………….. located in the frontal lobes. The …………………… deal with sensory sense of touch, temperature, vibration, pressure stretch, and joint position. The associated areas integrate …………………. types of information involved in planning, guidance, coordination, and execution of movement. The frontal eye-view is also a motor associated area involved in back-and-forth ……………………during reading. 11. An associated cortex, that is involved in planning, personality, and higher cognitive functions is the………………………….., whiles the sensory cortex that interpret incoming somatic sensory stimuli is the ……………………….. 12. Spatial awareness, and attention is coordinated by the………………………. whiles language production and comprehension is coordinated by …………… area and the …………………….. area respectively. 13. Taste stimuli is processed by………………, while the interpretation of and processing of visual information is by the primary visual cortex of the of the ……………. lobes. Auditory stimuli are processed by the ……………………. 14. The diencephalon is made up of four components, the…………………., the subthalamus, the epithalamus and the………………………. The thalamus relay sensory impulses to the ……………………….. cortex, while the subthalamus is connected in function to the basal nuclei and help in coordinating ………………….. movement. 15. The hypothalamus is located just below the………………. They are the link between the nervous system and the …………………..system via the pituitary gland. The epithalamus forms the roof of the diencephalon. Their function is related to the …………………..and other part of the brain. The pineal gland is associated with the epithalamus, they secrete ………………………. involved in circadian rhythms and regulation of motor pathway in sleep and wake cycles and emotions. 16. The limbic system is located is located just under the ………………. cortex and above the………………….. The limbic system support variety of functions including ……………….., behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. 17. The midbrain forms the top of the…………………. , inferior to the diencephalon and surrounds the……………………………. Superior and inferior colliculi protrude from posterior surface forming …………………… for visual and auditory functions respectively. 18. The pons is connected underneath of the……………………… It has 4 cranial nerves attached to it, which promotes lots of activities like……………….., arousal, vision, balance, chewing, blinking and many more. The cerebella peduncle connects the pons to the……………………….. 19. The medulla oblongata connects to pons and the………………….. Usually looks like the spinal cord. The main function of the medulla oblongata is to relay information from the spinal cord to the …………………..and regulates many autonomic functions such as…………………….., blood flow, and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration levels. They also produce reflexes such as sneezing, vomiting, …………………., and swallowing. 20. Cerebellum is the ………………….. part of the brain, and is functionally connected with the cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, brainstem, and spinal cord in maintaining coordination of…………………….. 21. The Reticular formation runs almost the entire length of the brain. It begins from the medullar oblongata and ends on the………………… The reticular formation is a nerve network of clusters of nuclei, and is useful in autonomic, motor, sensory, behavior, ……………………………, and mood relation. They are also involved in ……………………. and arousal. 22. The spinal cord connects to the medullar oblongata at the foramen……………… It extends all the way to the first and second ………………….. vertebrae. A thin thread called…………………….., extend from the tip of the conus medullaris, and then all the way to the first l vertebrae and anchors the spinal cord in place. 23. Throughout the length of the spinal cord, it shows 2 enlargements, the …………… enlargement, and the ………………………. enlargement. The spinal cord is divided into segments, and each segment bears a pair of……………….. There are …………….. at the cervical region, …………….at the thoracic region, …………………….at the lumbar region, ……………………. at the sacral region and ………………….at the coccygeal region. 24. The spinal cord and spinal nerves are covered with spinal ………………… in continuation with the cranial ………………………. There are three meningeal layers, the…………………, the arachnoid matter, and the…………………. The dura matter forms the outer most meningeal layer and is made up lots of collagen fibers making it very strong to provide physical …………. to the CNS. 25. Underneath the dura matter is the…………………….., so called because of its spider web nature. Deep against the walls of the spinal cord is …………………………with blood capillaries. Between the walls dura matter and the walls of the vertebrae is the …………….l space filled with lots of adipose tissue, areolar tissues, and blood vessels, providing……………………. The space between the pia matter and the arachnoid matter is called the …………………… space filled with cerebrospinal fluid. 26. In a cross section of the spinal cord, has a gray is in the middle shaped like letter ………………………. surrounding the central canal. The nuclei of the gray matter are called…………………….. Based on the anatomical position, there are anterior gray horn, posterior gray horn, and…………………………. These horns are surrounded by ……………………. toward the outside. The white matter is also named based on their anatomical position, there are …………….., anterior white column, and lateral white column. 27. The central canal is located right in the middle of the………………, filled with cerebrospinal fluid, and it is strips by the…………………….. Anterior gray horns is involving somatic motor function of the…………………….., while the posterior gray horns is related to processing of incoming somatic and……………………… The lateral gray horns are having cell bodies that control the visceral via the ……………………system. 28. There are two spinal nerves attached to each segment of the spinal cord. Each nerve has 2 roots, the ………………. root and the …………………root. Both anterior and posterior roots converged to form one ………………….. on either side of the segment. A spinal nerve divides into 4 branches called …………………., the anterior ramus, the posterior ramus, …………………….., and meningeal ramus. 29. Spinal cord white matter comprises of …………………and …………………..tracts of myelinated and unmyelinated axons. These tracts allow the spinal cord to communicate with the……………………. Based on the anatomical position of the spinal cord, there are 3 types of funiculi, the anterior funiculus, ………………. funiculus, and the posterior funiculus. 30. Sensory trats pathway transmit sensory information from the ………………. system to the brain. This pathway monitors the ………………environments. It uses sensation-stimulated receptor to pass information to the……………… Sensory pathway has a sequence of ……………………to transmit information to the CNS. 31. The first order neurons are …………………… neurons that transmit information to the CNS from the …………………….of the PNS. 32. The sensory pathway begins with …………………..of the cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion enters the spinal cord and synapsis with …………………..neuron in the spinal cord and medullar oblongata. The axons of the second order neuron then decussate and terminate on the third order neuron in the………………. Axons of the third order neuron terminates on the nuclei of the………………………. 33. Ascending sensory trats are located on either side sides of the spinal cord. There are two posterior columns, ………………………, and two anterolateral system-spinothalamic trats. The posterior columns are further divided into two trats, the medial fasciculus gracilis, and the……………….. These tracts transmit sensory information to the CNS. The spinocerebellar transmit information about ………………and stretch form the PNS to the……………………. The anterior lateral system including the spinothalamic trats, transmit information about …………..and temperature from PNS to the brain. 34. Descending trats are ……………trats. They transmit motor information from a specific region in the brain down to the ………….and then to specific regions of the body. The motor pathway issue commands from the CNS in response of the sensory information to the …………..and ………………..nervous systems, thereby control conscious and subconscious activities of skeletal muscles. Biology Science Physiology BIOL 108 Share QuestionEmailCopy link Comments (0)

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